Home Page + Blog Site Contents TV Interview 9/3/2017 10/5/2016 TV Interview Radio Interview Report Contents &Section Links MSL Ultraviolet 2018 Global Dust Storm Seismic Activity on Mars ALL MSL WEATHER MSL Yr 5 FALL MSL Yr 5 Summer MSL Year 5 Spring MSL Years 4-5 Winter MSL Year 4 Fall Weather MSL Year 4 Summer Weather MSL Year 4 Spring Weather MSL Yr 3-4 Winter Weather MSL Yr 3 Fall Data MSL Year 3 Summer Data MSL Year 3 Spring Data MSL Yr 2-3 Winter Data MSL Yr 2 Fall Data MSL Yr 2 Summer Data MSL Weather Year 2 MSL Weather Year 1 155-Mile high Mars Plume March 25 2017 Plume Sol 370, 1160,1161, 1300&1301 pressure anomalies MSL Hi Air & Ground Temps MSL Low Temps Warm winter ground temps & life RUNNING WATER ON MARS Report Abstract to 1.2 Report Sec.2-2.1 Report Sec.2.2-2.4 Report 2.5-2.5.2 Report 2.5.3-2.7 Report 3-4 Report 4.1-4.2 Report 5 to 6 Report 7-7.2.1 Report 8 Report 9 Report 10 Report 11 Global Dust Storm Report 12 Report 13-13.2 Report 13.3-13.5 Report 13.6 Report 14-15 Report 15.1 Report 15.2-15.3 Report 15.4-15.6.2 Report 15.6.1-15.6.3 Report 15.6.4-15.7 Report 16-16.1 Report New 17-20 Report Afterword Report References Report 21 Annex Links Report figure links Diurnal air temp. variation Oxygen&Trees on Mars? Phobos Monolith Beagle 2 found Adiabatics Concession by Ashima Old MSL Weather 1 Old MSL Weather 2 High and low pressures normalized Soil 2% water MSL Temp. ∆ Mast to Ground Relative humidity Mars sky color Tavis Sensor Suspicion Vailsala Sensor: Phoenix&MSL Mars Temps Fahrenheit Pathfinder pressures Wind Booms & Disinformation Ingersoll Debate Daylight-math-fix Curiosity Geology Early MSL Weather Reports Landing altitudes Mars Mission History & Sites Nuc on Mars? Ashima/MIT GCM Critique NASA alters temp. data Viking pressure sensors failed Dust Storm Nonsense JPL Press Conference Critique 1 Navigating Mars Phobos Grunt Failure Moving sand & Mars winds Moving rock Data Fudge Fossil found on Mars? Organic Chem found on Mars MSL Sol 200 Anomaly Gil Levin & Labeled Release - Part 1 Levin & Labeled Release - Pt. 2 - Roswell Link Brine on Mars Lights on Ceres Yr 1 Table 1 Spherical life on Mars? Scale heights REMS flaws MSL Daylength &Temp Missing data ExoMars crash Lima 3 Desai & EDL Sea at Utopia Planitia Mars Mars winter vs. summer temps Rebuttal of REMS Report Unrealistic Ground Low Temps Mt. Sharp pressures & scale height Opacity at MSL Helo to Mars Custom 2

TThere is strange intermittent activity from 2009 until October 2018 at a volcano named Arsia Mons. This page updated on 11/22/2018. Note: Some of the photo links to Alba Patera and Olympus Mons are down until they are repaired by a European colleague - Mateo Fagone.

The activity shown on Figure 1 was captured by the European Space Agency (ESA) with its Mars Webcam. While the ESA raw data shows it from September 19 to 25 and starting again on October 10 to at least October 22, 2018, NASA says it doesn't see it (or they have made the decision to paint over images that show it) and yet very similar clouds or plumes coming from the same place on Arsia Mons were also seen in 2009 and 2012. See Figure 2 to compare the eruptions over nine years at the point location on the mountain. It was our Italian partners, Marco de Marco and Mateo Fagone, who first brought our attention to the new events at Arsia Mons. You will find our translation of Marco's article here first and then our comments on them.

Figure 1 above - source of the plume in September and October, 2018. Figure 2 below - comparison of 2009, 2012 and 2018 plumes.


Arsia Mons: the eruption of discord

For the umpteenth time the Mars WebCam, the filming device mounted on board the European Mars Express probe, has provided us with a sequence of images that show a transient phenomenon clearly visible on the Martian surface. Unlike other past events, it was relatively easy to identify the source of the phenomenon in question, which was found to coincide with the volcano Arsia Mons. The phenomenon was observable in all the photos obtained between September 19 and 25, 2018, but it was completely absent in a previous photo taken on September 16, 2018. Further images appeared again on October 10 and October 16, 2018. For all these we observe the characteristic plume of unidentified nature that escapes from the west side of Arsia Mons, at a distance of about 120 km from the center of the main caldera. Another clearly visible feature consists of the intrinsic extension of the aforementioned plume, which protrudes to the west probably following the prevailing direction of the winds (the direction was identical in 2009 and 2018). In the photo of September 24, the plume seems to reach an extension of over 2000 km, clearly showing its shadow cast in the ground below; moreover it appears relatively thin (compared to its overall length) with a maximum width of about 140 km. In all four shots taken between September 19th and 25th, and again on October 10 and 16 the plume clearly shows the same point of origin and formation, which should reasonably lead us to exclude the possibility that it may be a simple atmospheric passage formation.

At this point, the question is more than legitimate: "What could have produced this kind of phenomenon?"

Well, first of all it would be appropriate to accept that the correlation between Arsia Mons and the plume is real and not the result of a trivial coincidence due to something like a scratch on the lens. The event must be related to the volcano itself. Otherwise, those with a traditional NASA mindset could simply liquidate it all as "accidentally occurring atmospheric event near the Arsia Mons caldera". A little bit like saying "if I punch you in the face and you find yourself with a black eye it could just be a trivial coincidence that you have the black eye, because maybe you had a bad irritation going on ..."

It is essential to treat this finding without taking into account the preconceptions often espoused by some "bullies of the web" who may have prestigious degrees and professional participation. Over the past week some of these self-styled "experts" have delighted us with marvelous "sorghum beads", thundering like the wrath of the gods of Olympus, in the pathetic attempt to squelch the volcanic hypothesis, proposing in return their dogmatic explanation. They were quite emotional in their insistance that the hypothesis of a possible volcanic emission in Arsia Mons "had" to be rejected. Among the best explanations provided during the lively debate was that relating to the orographic cloud. Let us immediately point out that all four main volcanoes of the Tharsis region are regularly affected by the formation of thick orographic clouds, but it seems that this fact was sufficient for the aforementioned "experts" to close the matter without offering any ideas for further study.

What is an orographic cloud?

"When a damp and generally cold wind goes up a mountain range cools and the humidity of the air condenses: it therefore produces general conditions of cloudy weather, (on Earth often with rain and/or snow in the windward slope). This" rising wind "takes its name of Stau, in German "stagnatio." Beyond the mountain range, that is in the lee side we generally find a dry wind, with warm air descending. Said favonio or Föhn that works against condensation by adiabatic compression of the air, increases its temperature according to the dry adiabatic gradient greater than pseudo-adiabatic thermal gradient of ascent. This leads to the dissolving of the clouds and to scarce or nil rains on Earth. That is to say we find general conditions of mild weather, stable and an extremely limpid sky. The phenomenon is all the more evident where the rising air current is more humid and the mountain range is higher. The cloud face that forms along the ridge, i.e. in the transition zone, is called the Föhn wall. It is often made up of stratified lenticular clouds. "

If the plume originated from the west of Arsia Mons and the wind blew from east to west we would get that the east slope would find itself windward while the west side would be downwind (in the lee). Consequently, any kind of orographic cloud formation would have to be formed on the east side and not on the west side of Arsia Mons, which being leeward would be subject to the adiabatic air compression. Therefore it should have been completely clear of clouds. But it is the western side of Arsia Mons where we find these clouds, so they can't be orographic in origin. See  Figure 3 for a general view of orographic clouds on Mars and for a picture of some on Earth. Compare the Orographic clouds on Mars below with the plumes seen above at Arsia Mons on Figure 2.

MARCO expressed his dissatisfaction with photos available from the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Probe as follows:

Appears appears, disappears disappears!!!
See also Figure 4 and the animated GIF from https://image.ibb.co/…/MARCI_17to23_09_2018_Ratated_Credit.… after it below. 

The images taken from the Mars color (Marci) Probe aboard The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Probe (MRO) are totally different from the images taken from mars webcam aboard the esa mars express probe!!!
(see: https://www.facebook.com/PianetaMarte.MdM/videos/2154718898149548/)
While in the images of the Mars webcam from 19 September there is a clear plume that originates from the west side of the caldera of Arsia Mons, in the images of MARCI we do not observe any of this. Indeed, they are also overshadowed by the passage of dust clouds.
In addition, in the images of ESA's MARCI you observe a beautiful cloud (a real cloud!!!) on the west side of Arsia Mons. This cloud is totally absent from the filming of MARS WEBCAM !!!

It is clear that the differences between the two filmings are totally irreconcilable. One of them is conspicuously false!!! So who do we believe in NASA or ESA? The Plume is there or not???
ROFFMAN COMMENT: Marco, that's an easy question to answer. While I'd love to endorse NASA, I can't.  What you and others are noticing is what my son and I have been writing about for years in my report, MARS CORRECT - CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA.  We are beginning to see that as other nations successfully send missions to Mars they are finding that we have not been honest with the world when it comes to Mars. The U.S. can still make correction to our data or Mars weather publications, but the window of opportunity for change is closing fast. NASA has often altered its weather claims for Mars after reading the work of my father and I. For example, as they know, they pulled down all wind data for the Curiosity lander, and changed all sunrise-sunset calculations to match my math (my father's estimate was much better than anything published by NASA, then I got it right within a minute and NASA revised their sorry math to match mine). While they are still not close to our pressure calculations, they have changed a large number of pressure readings after we pointed out that they were not consistent with previous pressure readings that they published. An example of such changes is seen given in Table 3 of our report:

TABLE 3 – Pressures revised by JPL/REMS after we highlighted them or published them in earlier versions of our Report




Initial Pressure Reported

Pressure for the previous sol

Final Pressure Reported after JPL Revisions

Aug 25, 2012



785 Pa


719 Pa– then changed to N/A

Aug 27, 2012



790 Pa


741 Pa

Sept 1 to Sept 5, 2012



 742 to 747 hPa       74200 to 74700 (Pa)

743 Pa

745, 743, 745, 747 and 747 Pa 

Sep 12, 2012 (This date later changed to 9/11/2012)



799 Pa

749 Pa

750 Pa

Sep 16, 2012 (date later altered)



804 Pa

750 Pa

753 Pa – then changed to 751 Pa  

Sep 16, 2012 (date later altered)



804 Pa

750 Pa

753 Pa – then changed to 751 Pa 


Oct 3, 2012

Series alteration starts here and goes to 10/12/2012



779 Pa

770 Pa

769 – Pa. Note the steady progression without reversals that were seen between 10/3/2012 and 10/12/2012 in initial results. This series looks very fudged.

Oct 4, 2012



779 Pa


769 Pa

Oct 5, 2012



781 Pa


771 Pa

Oct 6, 2012



785 Pa


772 Pa

Oct 7, 2012



779 Pa


772 Pa

Oct 8, 2012



782 Pa


774 Pa

Oct 9, 2012



786 Pa


775 Pa

Oct 10, 2012



785 Pa


776 Pa







Oct 11, 2012



785 Pa


777 Pa

Oct 12, 2012



781 Pa


778 Pa

Nov 11, 2012



815.53 Pa

822.43 Pa

822 Pa

Dec 8, 2012



865.4 Pa

867.5 Pa





Initial Pressure Reported

Pressure for the previous sol

Final Pressure Reported after JPL Revisions

Feb 19, 2013



940 Pa – a high until now. Pressures had been declining since a high of 925 Pa in late January 2013.



Feb 22, 2013



886 Pa – quite a large drop

Last 2 reports were 940 Pa on Feb 19 and 921 Pa on Feb 18, 2012


Feb 27, 2013



937 Pa

917 Pa


May 2, 2013



900 Pa

868.05 Pa


Aug 21, 2013



1,149 Pa

865 Pa

865 Pa

Aug 27, 2014



754 Pa

771 Pa

771 Pa

Oct 11, 2014



823 Pa

838 Pa

838 Pa

April 16, 2015



823 Pa

N/A – next sol 848 Pa


Nov 10, 2015



1177 Pa

898 Pa

899 Pa

Nov 12, 2015



1200 Pa

899 Pa (revised)

898 Pa

April 2, 2016



945 Pa

753 Pa

752 Pa

April 3, 2016



1154 Pa

753 Pa (2 sols earlier, 751 Pa on Sol 1302

752 Pa

Oct 17, 2016



921 Pa

906 Pa

910 Pa

Oct 23, 2016



897 Pa

909 Pa

907 Pa

Oct 27, 2016



928 Pa

903 Pa

907 Pa

Jan 10, 2017



860 Pa

868 Pa

871 Pa

Feb 10, 2017



815 Pa

850 Pa

846 Pa

Feb 15, 2017



864 Pa

847 Pa


Aug 13, 2017



1294 Pa

879 Pa

883 Pa

Mar 24, 2018



913 Pa

717 Pa

716 Pa

Mar 25, 2018



1167 Pa

913 revised to 716

715 Pa

Nov 7, 2018



850 Pa

865 Pa

863 Pa

Nov 12, 2018



884 Pa

863 Pa

860 Pa

Table 3 of the Mars Correct Basic Report shows some (not all) of how JPL/REMS altered off the curve data for August 2012 on through at least November 22, 2018 after we either brought the deviations up to JPL Public Relations Director Guy Webster, or published them on our davidaroffman.com and marscorrect.com websites.

MARCO CONTINUES: This animation has been obtained by sequencing frame numbers 170, 470, 770, 1070, 1370, 1670 and 1970 extracts from the " MRO MARCI weather report for the week of 17 September 2018-23 September 2018 " available at: http://www.msss.com/msss_images/2018/09/26/. The extracted frames were then rotated by 90° clockwise to make it easier to compare with images of the Mars Webcam.


Figure 4 - The ESA Mars Express shows plumes, but at best NASA's MRO only shows an orographic cloud - or a paint over of what is at Arsia Mons.



1. Dust Devils at the Top. Dust devils are also seen in abundance on Arsia Mons.  But the base altitude of some dust devils there has been about 17,000 meters. Such an altitude on Mars supposedly would have about 1.2 mbar pressure.  Reis et al. (2009) state that 28 active dust devils were reported in their study region for Arsia Mons, with 11 of them at altitudes greater than 16 km, and most inside the caldera (see Figure 5A).  They don't fully understand how particles that are a few microns in size can be lifted there, and state that 1 mbar “requires wind speeds 2-3 times higher than at the Mars mean elevation for particle entanglement.”

       Reis et al. (2009) suggest a greenhouse-thermophoretic (GT) effect that they believe explains ~1 mbar dust lifting at Arsia Mons. Their article states that “Laboratory and microgravity experiments show that the light flux needed for lift to occur is in the same range as that of solar insolation available on Mars.” They concede that high altitude dust devils do not follow the season of maximum insolation, but indicate that the GT-effect would be strongest around pressures of 1 mbar. However, if anything we would expect such dust lifted at high altitude to just drift away.  The GT effect does not explain the structure of these events at high altitude, or why the dust rotates in columns that match dust devils produced at lower altitudes.  Further, Figure 5A shows that dust devils form at successively lower levels (i.e., higher pressures) as altitudes decline from 17 km to about 7 km, so there is nothing unique about reaching the theorized ~1 mbar-level at the top of Arsia Mons. 

2. Sprial Clouds over the Mountain With What Looks Like an Eye Wall 10 km Wide.

       Dust devils are not the only feature spiraling up from Arsia Mons.  As seen on Figure 5B, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory states that:

Just before southern winter begins (NOTE: This is in error, JPL should have indicated just before southern spring begins), sunlight warms the air on the slopes of the volcano. This air rises, bringing small amounts of dust with it. Eventually, the rising air converges over the volcano's caldera, the large, circular depression at its summit. The fine sediment blown up from the volcano's slopes coalesces into a spiraling cloud of dust that is thick enough to actually observe from orbit. The spiral dust cloud over Arsia Mons repeats each year, but observations and computer calculations indicate it can only form during a short period of time each year. Similar spiral clouds have not been seen over the other large Tharsis volcanoes, but other types of clouds have been seen... The spiral dust cloud over Arsia Mons can tower 15 to 30 kilometers (9 to 19 miles) above the volcano.

       While we were producing an updated version of my Basic Report, we checked our link to Figure 5B and found that JPL had added an image of a similar storm on Olympus Mons at an altitude of over 21 km above areoid.

       Arsia Mons is at 9° South. With respect to the season, southern spring begins at Ls 180. It extends to Ls 270.  Ls 90 to 179.9 is southern winter. Figure 5B shows these storms between Ls 150.4 and 180. They are therefore between the late winter and the first day of spring, but the storm over Olympus Mons in the northern hemisphere at Ls 152.6 is in late summer. Figure 5B shows structures analogous to the eye walls of small hurricanes associated with the spiral clouds. They are about 10 km across and appear quite vigorous on Arsia Mons and about 7 km across at Olympus Mons. These pictures were taken just before when planetary pressures should be near minimums. At such high altitude, there shouldn’t be enough pressure differentials to drive such storms if NASA is right, but they are plainly wrong.

       So, what we see at Arsia Mons are:

       (1) Repetitive plumes in 2009, 2012 and 2018 on the southwest flank that look like the products of a volcano even though we are asked to believe that Arsia Mons is an extinct volcano,

       (2) Dust devils forming at altitudes so high that according to NASA we should find air pressure near 1 mbar, a thousandth of air pressure on Earth, and

       (3) Organized spiral storms that rise to 30 km above the volcano.

       How can any of this be explained high up on and over an extinct volcano in an area that has nearly no air pressure? The answer is simple. NASA is feeding us disinformation. Arsia Mons is not extinct and the air pressure is about two orders of magnitude higher than NASA claims. Belief in that  fraudulent claim led to the crash of the ExoMars 2016 ESA Schiaparelli spacecraft which detected so much extra, unpredicted air pressure on its landing attempt that it turned off its retrorockets and fell 3.7 km to its death. It's why ESA had to raise the orbit of the ExoMars 2016 orbiter (they blamed this directly on excessive air pressure on Mars).

Figure 5A - Dust devils a the top of Arsia Mons, and 5B - Spiral storm above Arsia Mons and Olympus Mons.


        Marco and his friend Matteo Fagone became our European partners in getting the truth about Mars out to the public, and in particular to the European Space Agency (ESA) when on September 3, 2017 they posted an extensive interview of my son and I that he conducted on their Planteta Marte.net web site. What will follows here is a translation of their volcano article with commentary by us in dark blue bold fonts.

        Marco wrote, "On Saturday March 25, 2017, I noticed the arrival of new photos by Mars Webcam. in this case I immediately spotted the presence of a puff on the right side of an image of Mars. At first I thought it was a small defect in the image but as soon as I opened the ESA's Flickering page, I noticed that it was not just an artifact but that there were ten images in which the above-mentioned puff appeared. Looking at the web, to date, I did not find any reference to this phenomenon and I decided to analyze all ten images in detail and to try to go back to the exact location where the phenomenon had occurred. As can be seen from the images, Mars appears as a thin crescent shape on which there are very few reference details. Furthermore the information provided by ESA for the images was totally inadequate for the identification of the affected area.

"As a first step then I have recorded and sequenced all ten images to try to understand the dynamics of the phenomenon. I then noticed that the images tended to rotate downwards and that in the last images the puff appeared clearly detached from the ground. Another aspect of these ten images is that they are taken with different exposure times to groups of three and spaced about one minute apart. Each group of three photos includes a longer exposure that tends to saturate much of the planet's image, a medium exposure and a shorter time when saturated areas are minimized; for clarity I will refer to them as long exposure, medium exposure and short exposure. I decided to separate the three sequences so that the dynamics of the phenomenon can be better analyzed.

BELOW: Series of plumes over Alba Patera. See Figure 6 for a map showing Alba Patera and the Tharsis mountains.


       "From an initial assessment of the last image, the one where the alleged area was supposed to be exactly on the profile of the planet's image, I obtained the scale of the image. Knowing the size of Mars and estimating the diameter that the full disk of the planet would have had in the image of Mars Webcam; the scale was found to be about 14 km / pixel. At this point I was able to trace the width and the altitude reached by the puff, which rose to an altitude of about 60 km with a diameter of about 360 km, a really impressive structure! A phenomenon of this magnitude can hardly be attributed to a sand storm that normally does not have a mushroom structure as in this case. From the animations one clearly sees a structure attached to the limb of the planet for only a short stretch, while the rest of the "Puff" clearly shows a couple of black pixels between the puff and the surface of the limb of the planet. This means something has spilled and has stratified between 50 and 60 km of altitude leaving a free space with a surface of about 20-30 km. Clearly a sand storm could not produce such a structure as the wind-driven sand tends to spread evenly from the surface to the altitude reached. I then sought to identify the place that had generated this phenomenon.. First, I analyzed the direction of rotation shown by the animations. I was able to establish that the Northern Hemisphere was on the right and the left South. Next I used online programs that calculate the local solar time of some famous landing sites to find the reference longitude for dawn and sunset at the time of the image. With this information I could calculate the longitude of the visible terminator of the images. Knowing the solar longitude of Mars, (Ls 338.4) it was also possible to establish that the North Pole of Mars would be illuminated from about 80° latitude, allowing me to go back to the geographic coordinates of the point of interest. With my great surprise I found that the site of interest was a great volcano located in the Northern Hemisphere: Alba Mons (/Alba Patera)."

Plume over Alba Patera.

Note: Marco's claim above that on March 25, 2017 Mars would be illuminated from about 80° latitude allowed us to see if his math was correct. Using a spreadsheet my son developed to calculate daylight hours, we found that Marco's approximation was quite accurate. As the segment below indicates to 3 decimal places, at a latitude of 81.1556 degrees North at Ls 338.4 there would be about .02894 hours/1 minute 44 seconds of daylight (at 80 degrees North this time grows to about 3.845 hours of daylight).

λsun Latitude (phi)        Day Length = Daylight In Hours David's Calculation (=E value * 24)
 (0 for spring in northern hemisphere)  δdegrees =  arcsin((sin(25.19)*sin(λsun))   H = arccos((SIN(-.17) - SIN(lw)*SIN(δ))/(COS(lw)*COS(δ))) 2*1.027491*H/360
338.4 81.1556 -9.014340863 0.211249589 0.001205873 0.02894094
338.4  80 -9.014340863 28.06703754 0.160214603 3.845150463

Marco continues:

"This fact coupled with what I have already explained, leads me to suspect a possible volcanic eruption as the morphological and dynamic characteristics of the phenomenon appear to indicate a volcanic eruption. I have to specify that I have no spectrometric indication to be able to ascertain whether the phenomenon was generated by gases, dusts or vapors but that the morphological characteristics clearly indicate that the "material" involved in the phenomenon has escaped from a very narrow area and has climbed up to a height of about 50-60 km where it formed a sort of "donut" structure not thicker than 20-30 km and wide about 360 km. I understand that talking about volcanic activity on an inactive planet for millions of years may seem absurd. Mars does not show signs of volcanic activity for at least 50 million years. The fact remains that the morphology, dynamics and duration of the phenomenon seem to point to the thesis of a volcanic eruption, although the phenomenon will require further investigations to be carried out with orbiting satellites around Mars to establish the real nature of the phenomenon.

We conclude with a curious note: during the detailed analysis of the images, I noticed the presence of two "dots" moving just above the terminator's zone, more or less the same latitude as the above phenomenon. From the direction of motion it seems to be a couple of satellites inserted on polar orbit that causally passed near the described phenomenon. Not having the ephemeris of the polar satellites currently in orbit to Mars, I am not able to determine with certainty what probe it is. I just hope that the above-mentioned probes are active and equipped with cameras so that we can have more detailed shooting and information about the phenomenon in the future."

ESA Credits: ESA. Development of gif: Marco De Marco Credits





IS OLYMPUS MONS STILL ACTIVE? Marco and Matteo believe they have also seen plume-based indications of possible volcanic activity on Olympus Mons, the largest volcano on Mars and in our solar system. What follows below is translation from the Italian on their web site.

For the second time in less than two weeks, we witnessed a peculiar phenomenon captured by images from the Mars WebCam (ESA). As promptly reported in our post published on the very day of the event (that is, last April 4, 2017), a large cloud of dust and gas interrupted the continuity of the Martian terminator.


The terminator defines the boundary between the hemisphere in light and the hemisphere in the shade. Consequently, for an object to remain illuminated by the sun before and after sunset, it must be at such a height that it can take it outside the shadow cone of the planet itself.

Mars WebCam shows us a cloud that comes out distinctly from the line of the Martian terminator, allowing us to estimate the minimum latitude that the cloud should have in order to be illuminated by the sun even though it is still in the middle of the night. If we were ideally located below that cloud, say about 40 minutes before dawn, we could observe a still practically black sky, however, by this imposing luminescent cloud, at least as bright as during the daylight hours. By means of trigonometric calculations, we could therefore conclude that the cloud could not be below 60 km, but given that the whole surrounding area is quite elevated compared to the average Mars level (point datum), at least we must add a dozen kilometers to this value, thus reaching an overall level of about 70 km. Its latitude extension was 900 km, though with a very irregular structure and only partially analyzable. The location of this event was possible thanks to the use of the "Mars Clock" site by James Tauber, but above all thanks to the fantastic Mars24 program that allows us to calculate exactly the illuminated area and the shadow area of ​​Mars for a given time user's choice. For astrometric measurements we used the second of the ten photos obtained by Mars WebCam, taken at 04:08:40 UT. By setting this data in the Mars24 program we have obtained the perfect location of the terminator line.

BELOW: Figure 9 Series of plumes over Olympus Mons.




        The red arrow on this image indicates the exact point that represents the summit of Olympus Mons. As in the previous phenomenon of March 25, we have put in order the various images in order to produce animations that show the dynamics of the phenomenon as much as possible, even within ten minutes. As usual, Mars WebCam resumes with three different shows for which, in addition to the main animation, we brought the animated gif in the three-degree exposure.

Figure 10 below: Plume over Olympus Mons.

       As can be seen, in spite of the shortness of time between the various shots, the cloud shows small morphological changes, thus confirming its aerial nature and not morphological geographies. We are aware that often the great Martian volcanoes are home to formation of orographic clouds, i.e. clouds that are formed due to the condensation of water vapor when large masses of air are forced to climb altitude to overcome an obstacle.

       As you can see in this video, orographic clouds are often present in the east of the great Martian volcanoes. However, given the extreme rarefaction of the Martian atmosphere, it is very unlikely to think that water vapor or clouds can rise to such high levels. At about 70 km of altitude, the Martian atmospheric pressure should be around a few tenths of hPa (or if you prefer a few dozen Pascal), a bit ridiculous value! On the other hand, so that the dust particles can climb up to 70 km altitude, ignoring the friction of air, they should be "fired up" at about 2,500 km/h, or 2.5 times the speed of the sound! For this reason, available data suggest a volcanic nature of the phenomenon, probably of an explosive nature, the only one capable of firing in other dust and debris. We are waiting for further photographic repetitions such as the shooting of MARCI used in the previous case.

Figure 6 - Map showing the location of Alba Patera.



Why is NASA almost certainly lying to us about Mars?  I speculate ArkCode.com about who's behind the disinformation and why it's been going on for a long time, but my beliefs are beyond the scope of this site. So for now let me just state that it's clear that Mars is quite different from what our Government wants us to believe. The air pressure is likely almost a hundred times higher than they let us know about. Recently we have been told by NASA that there are areas where there is likely running water (at recurring slope lineae). Is there life on Mars now? Almost certainly. Is there intelligent life on Mars now? Possibly - but we don't have the critical evidence to prove it yet. With all the weird stuff going on at Arsia Mons if anyone (human or alien) wants to terraform the planet, getting Mars to belch out copious amounts of gas and/or water at volcanoes would be a good place to start, but we don't have any evidence to conclude that this is the cause of all the weather anomalies that we see there - although the overlap of plumes, dust devils and large spiral storms at Arsia Mons suggests that it is a top candidate. There are, of course, apparent caves seen on Arsia Mons (and Pavonis Mons) that could shield a colony from radiation and meteorite strikes. The ESA should be encouraged to explore Arsia Mons in much greater detail. Where we pointed out darkened surface materials on Figure 1 we need a spectral/chemical analysis to help settle the volcanic eruption issue.