MSL YEAR 2 WINTER & SUMMER TEMPERATURE COMPARISON

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Inconsistent differences in air and ground temperature (taken 1.5 meters apart) suggest that ground temperatures from MSL are worthless. The ground temperature sensor likely broke on landing. Updated on 2/13/2017

       Table 1 shows the number of sols in each Martian month with a total of 669 sols in a Martian year. Mars Science Laboratory is in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Table 2 shows the temperature data released by NASA for the summer of MSL Year 2 and the winter of MSL Years 2 to 3. Summer in the southern hemisphere occurs in months 10, 11 and 12. There are 154 days in MSL's summer and 179 sols in MSL's winter. This article will examine whether NASA-claimed diurnal temperature changes at MSL are likely to be real or manufactured. However, before analyzing the data it must be noted that the ground temperature sensor at MSL is only accurate to 10K/10°C/18°F. See Figure 1.

        On Figure 2 we see that air temperatures drop more degrees at night in summer than in winter although lows are colder in the winter than in the summer. This was looked at because we wanted to get an idea of how cold it would get in the dark so we could compare it with darkness on the Earth’s moon. Daytime on one side of the moon lasts about 13 and a half days, followed by 13 and a half nights of darkness. The sunlight surface can 123° C. The "dark side of the moon" can have temperatures dipping to -153° C. The moon tilts on its axis about 1.54 degrees there are places at the lunar poles that never see daylight.  The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter measured temperatures of -238° C in craters at the southern pole and -247° C in a crater at the northern pole. That’ the coldest temperature recorded in the solar system.

       How do these temperatures compare with Mars? The REMS Team indicates that Mars average surface temperature is -53.15° C and varies widely over the course of a Martian day, from -128.185°C during the polar night to +26.85° C on the equator at midday at the closest point in its orbit around the Sun, with diurnal variations of up to 80–100 ° C.


TABLE 1 – THE MARTIAN MONTHLY CALENDAR

MARS MONTH

SEASON AT MSL

END SOL

START SOL

DAYS

Ls

ΔLs Degrees per Day

1

FALL

61

0

61

0-30

0.491803

2

FALL

127

61

66

30-60

0.454545

3

FALL

193

127

66

60-90

0.454545

4

WINTER

258

193

65

90-120

0.461538

5

WINTER

318

258

60

120-150

0.5

6

WINTER

372

318

54

150-180

0.555556

7

SPRING

422

372

50

180-210

0.6

8

SPRING

468

422

46

210-240

0.652174

9

SPRING

515

468

47

240-270

0.638298

10

SUMMER

562

515

47

270-300

0.638298

11

SUMMER

613

562

51

300-330

0.588235

12

SUMMER

669

613

56

330-360

0.535714

 

 

TABLE 2 - COMPARISON OF TEMPERATURES AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES AT MSL FOR ITS SUMMER IN YEAR 2 AND WINTER IN YEARS 2 TO 3  
A B C D E F G H I J K   A B C D E F G H I J K
SOL MSL YR 2 SUMMER LS AIR HIGH AIR LOW ΔTEMP ΔT/40 GROUND  HIGH

GROUND LOW

ΔTEMP ΔT HI AIR TO GRND ΔT LO AIR TO GRND   SOL MSL YR 2- 3 WINTER LS AIR    HIGH AIR LOW ΔTEMP ΔT/40 GROUND HI GROUND LO ΔTEMP ΔT HI AIR TO GRND ΔT LO AIR TO GRND
865 270 -5 -70 -65 1.625 4 -75  -79 9 -5   1213 90 -27 -84 -57 1.425       -12     -87  -75        15           -3  
866 270 -4 -71 -67 1.675 4 -74  -78 8 -3   1214 90  -24 -85 -61 1.525        -12     -86 -74        12      -1
867 271 -2 -71 -69 1.725 4 -72  -76 6 -1   1215 91 -27 -85 -58 1.45        -3    -84 -81        24      1
868 271 -4 -71 -67 1.675 3 -71  -74 7 0   1216 91 -28 -86 58 1.45        -6    -85 -79       22      1
869 272 -4 -72 -68 1.7 5 -72  -77 9 0   1217 92 -27 -88 -61 1.525       -3    -91 -88        24       -3 
870 273 -6 -74 -68 1.7 4 -75  -79 10 -1   1218 92 -32 -96 -64 1.6        -6    -91 -85        26      5
871 273 -7 -70 -63 1.575 3 -60  -63 10 10   1219 93 -27 -87 -60 1.5        -4    -92 -88        23     -5
872 274 1 -72 -73 1.825 5 -72  -77 4 0   1220 93 -28 -87 -59 1.475  -3    -94 -91        25        -7    
873 275 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1221 93 -28 -87 -59 1.475  -1    -94 -93        27        -7  
874 275 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1222 94 -28 -87 -59 1.475  0    -94 -94        28        -7  
875 276 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1223 94 -26 -88  -62 1.55   0    -98   -98       26  -10 
876 277 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1224 95 -29 -88  -59  1.475  1     -98  -99       30  -10 
877 277 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1225 95 -28  -87   -59 1.475  -1     -98 -97       27  -11
878 278 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1226 96 -24 -87  -63 1.575 1     -97 -98           25   -10  
879 279 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1227 96 -26 -88  -62 1.55 2     -97 -99  28   -9
880 279 3 -46 -49 1.225 5 -42  -47 2 4   1228 97 -28 -88  -67 1.565 1     -93 -94  29   -5

880   revised

279 3 -57 -60 1.5 5 -60  -65 2 -3   1229 97 -26 -88  -62 1.55 1     -98 -99 27   -10
880 279 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   1230 98 -26  -88   -62   1.55  0      -98  -98   26   -10 
881 280 -4 -73 -69 1.725 4 -74  -78 8 -1   1231 98 -26  -88   -62  1.55  1    -98 -99   27   -10 
882 280 -6 -76 -70 1.75 3 -73  -76 9 3   1232 99 -28 -88  -60 1.5      -98  -99   29    -10
883 281 -4 -74 -70 1.75 3 -74  -77 7 0   1233 99 -27 -88 -61 1.525      -97 -98   28   -9
884 282 -5 -71 -66 1.65 5 -74  -79 10 -3   1234 99 -26 -88   -62  1.5      -94 -96   28    -6
885 282 -4 -71 -67 1.675 4 -73  -77 8 -2   1235 100 -28  -88  -60  1.5   -1     -97  -96  27   -9
886 283 -6 -73 -67 1.675 4 -74  -78 10 -1   1236 100  -26  -87 -61  1.525    1     -97    -98    27    -10 
887 284 -4 -73 -69 1.725 5 -73  -78 9 0   1237 101 -29 -88 -59 1.475    0       -99   -99    29   -11
888 284 -5 -70 -65 1.625 3 -74  -77 8 -4   1238 101 -26  -87 -61  1.525  2     -95 -97  28   -8
889 285 2 -70 -72 1.8 4 -74  -78 2 -4   1239 102 -26  -89 -63 1.575  2     -95 -97   28   -6
890 286 -4 -72 -68 1.7 5 -73  -78 9 -1   1240  102  -24  -87 -63  1.575   3      -94 -97    27    -7
891 286 -3 -72 -69 1.725 5 -74  -79 8 -2   1241 103 -28   -87  -59  1.475     1        -100 -101  29    -14
892 287 -3 -71 -68 1.7 5 -74  -79 8 -3   1242 103 -26    -87   -61    1.525  2    -98  -100  28     -11
893 287 2 -72 -74 1.85 4 -73  -77 2 -1   1243 104 -26   -86 -60  1.5  1    -99 -100 27   -13
894 288 -4 -75 -71 1.775 4 -74  -78 8 1   1244 104 -26  -85  -59   1.475     -92 -92 26   -7
895 289 -4 -72 -68 1.7 5 -74  -79 9 -2   1245 105 -26  -86  -60    1.5 -4   -90 -86 22  -4
896 289 1 -70 -71 1.775 8 -73  -81 7 -3   1246 105 -25 -85 -60     1.5  -3   -91 -88 22   -6
897 290 5 -72 -77 1.925 7 -74  -84 2 -2   1247 105 -25 -85 -60     1.5  -4   -90 -86  21  -5
898 291 2 -72 -74 1.85 7 -75  -82 5 -3   1248 105 -23 -86 -63 1.575   -4   -90 -86  19  -4 
899 291 -1 -75 -74 1.85 7 -73  -80 8 2   1249 106 -32 -85  -53  1.325  -9   -86 -77 23 -1
900 292 1 -70 -71 1.775 7 -75  -82 6 -5   1250 107 -28  -85  -57 1.425  -11   -88  -77  17 -3
901 292 -2 -71 -69 1.725 11 -74  -85 13 -3   1251 107 -27  -85  -58 1.45  -11   -88  -77  16 -3
902 293 0 -68 -68 1.7 5 -70  -75 5 -2   1252 108 -31 -85 -54 1.35  -9   -86  -77  22 -1 
903 294 -2 -71 -69 1.725 6 -73  -79 8 -2   1253 108 -26  -85   -59 1.475   -10  -89 -79 16  -4
904 294 0 -71 -71 1.775 8 -74  -82 8 -3   1254 109 -29 -84 -55 1.375 -11  -88 -77  18  -4
905 295 -2 -71 -69 1.725 8 -75  -83 10 -4   1255 109 -25 -84  -59 1.475   -10 -89 -79 15  -5
906 296 -3 -76 -73 1.825 9 -75  -84 12 1   1256 110 -27 -85 -58 1.45  -10 -85 -75  17 0
907 296 -1 -75 -74 1.85 8 -75  -83 9 0   1257  110  -21  -84  -63 1.575   -8 -88 -80   13 -4 
908 297 -3 -71 -68 1.7 8 -75  -83 11 -4   1258  111 -23 -83 -60 1.5   -13  -85 -72  10 -2
909 297 -2 -70 -68 1.7 8 -75  -83 10 -5   1259 111 -25 -84  -59 1.475   -12  -88  -76   13  -4
910 298 0 -73 -73 1.825 9 -74  -83 9 -1   1260 112 -23  -83  -60  1.5   -12   -87 -75   11  -4
911 299 0 -70 -70 1.75 8 -75  -83 8 -5   1261 112 -25  -81 -56 1.4    -12   -85 -73   13 -4
912 299 -4 -75 -71 1.775 8 -76  -84 12 -1   1262 112 -29 -81  -52 1.3   -12    -86  -74  17 -5
913 300 -4 -71 -67 1.675 10 -70  -80 14 1   1263 113  -29 -84   -55 1.375   -12    -84 -72  17  0
914 300 0 -71 -71 1.775 8 -60  -68 8 11   1264 113 -27 -84  -57   1.425  -7  -83   -76 20  1
915 301 -4 -71 -67 1.675 9 -74 -83 13 -3   1265 114 -28  -81   -53  1.35  -7  -86 -79 21   -5
916 302 -5 -71 -66 1.65 9 -75 -84 14 -4   1266 114 -27  -82  -55 1.375  -8  -87  -79 19  -5 
917 302 -1 -76 -75 1.875 9 -75 -84 10 1   1267 115 -24 -83  -59   1.475    -11 -86   -75 13  -3
918 303 0 -71 -71 1.775 9 -76 -85 9 -5   1268 115 -24   -83    -59   1.475    -11  -84 -73  13  -1
919 304 -3 -74 -71 1.775 9 -74 -83 12 0   1269 116 -17  -83   -66 1.65 -12   -83    -71  5  0
920 304 -2 -72 -70 1.75 9 -72 -81 11 0   1270 116 -18 -82  -64 1.6   -11 -82   -71    7  0
921 305 2 -70 -72 1.8 9 -74 -83 7 -4   1271 117 -22 -84  -62 1.55   -12  -83  -71  10  1
922 305 -2 -73 -71 1.775 9 -75 -84 11 -2   1272 117 -23 -81 -58 1.45 -12 -84 -72 11  -3
923 306 -5 -72 -67 1.675 14 -74  -88 19 -2   1273 118 -19 -79 -60 1.5   -12  -83   -71  -4
924 307 -1 -74 -73 1.825 10 -79 -89 11 -5   1274 118 -17 -82 -65  1.625  -2   -82 -80 15  0
925 307 -2 -71 -69 1.725 9 -75 -84 11 -4   1275 119  -17 -82   -65 1.625  -3 -85  -82 14 -3 
926 308 1 -76 -77 1.925 10 -75  -85 9 1   1276 119 -20 -83  -63 1.575   -3 -83  -80 17  0 
927 308 -2 -76 -74 1.85 11 -75 -86 13 1   1277 120 -28 -84  -56 1.4 -5 -87 -82  23 -3  
928 309 0 -74 -74 1.85 9 -74 -83 9 0   1278 120  -37  -83  -46 1.15 -8 -89 -81 29 -6
929 310 0 -75 -75 1.875 11 -76  -87 11 -1   1278 120    -29  -83 -54 1.35 -4 -89 -85 25 -6
930 310 -1 -75 -74 1.85 10 -78  -88 11 -3   1279 121 -29  -83  -54 1.35  -7 -89  -82  22 -6 
931 311 -1 -69 -68 1.7 10 -78 -88 11 -9   1280 121 -23 -84  -61 1.525  -7 -87 -80 16 -3
932 311 1 -71 -72 1.8 10 -75 -85 9 -4   1281 122 -22  -83  -61  1.525   -5  -86 -81  17  -3 
933 312 -4 -71 -67 1.675 11 -75  -86 15 -4   1282 122 -16  -81 -65 1.625   -6 -84 -78 10 -3  
934 313 -13 -73 -60 1.5 -9 -75  -84 4 -2   1283 123 -20  -82 -62 1.55   -8 -81 -73  12 1
934 revised 313 1 -73 -74 1.85 9 -75  -84 8 -2   1284 123  -21 -80 -59 1.475 -11 -76 -65  10 4
935 313 -2 -75 -73 1.825 10 -75  -85 12 0   1285 123  -13 -80 -67 1.675  -10 -81  -71   3 -1
936 314 -3 -72 -69 1.725 9 -75  -84 12 -3   1286 124 -19 -80 -61  1.525 -11  -80  -69  8 0
937 314 0 -73 -73 1.825 10 -77  -87 10 -4   1287 124 -18 -80 -62 1.55   -11 -78 -67  7 2
939 315 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1288 125 -16 -80  -64 1.6 -10 -80  -70 6
939 revised
316 -1 -60 -59 1.475 9 -62  -71 10 -2   1289 125  N/A   N/A  N/A  N/A   N/A   N/A  N/A N/A  N/A 
940 316 -2 -73 -71 1.775 8 -71  -79 10 2   1290 126   N/A   N/A  N/A  N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A N/A  N/A 
941 317 0 -74 -74 1.85 6 -71 -77 6 3   1291 126  -21 -80 -59  1.475  -10 -81 -71  11  -1
942 317 -1 -74 -73 1.825 6 -70  -76 7 4   1292 127 -22 -81 -59   1.475  -12 -79 -67 10 2
943 318 -1 -73 -72 1.8 5 -69 74 6 4   1293 127 -21 -81 -60 1.5  -12 -77 -65 9 4
944 318 0 -70 -70 1.75 8 -70  -78 8 0   1294 128 -16 -79 -63 1.575  -7 -77 -70 9 2
945 319 -1 -72 -71 1.775 5 -74  -79 6 -2   1295 128 -20 -79  -59    1.475  -9 -81 -72 11  -2
946 320 -2 -77 -75 1.875 6 -74  -80 8 3   1296 129 -25 -79  -54 1.35 -7  -80 -73 18   1  
947 320 -3 -70 -67 1.675 6 -73  -79 9 -3   1297 129 -24 -80 -56  1.4 -9 -86 -77 15 -6
948 321 -8 -73 -65 1.625 6 -73  -79 14 0   1298 130 -17 -79 -63  1.575  -9  -84 -75 -5
949 321 -4 -72 -68 1.7 9 -75  -84 13 -3   1299 130 -19 -80 -61 1.525    -13 -78 -65  6 2
950 322 0 -73 -73 1.825 13 -71  -84 13 2   1300 131 -16 -79 -63   1.575  -13 -77 -64 3 2
951 323 -4 -75 -71 1.775 14 -81  -95 18 -6   1300 131 -16 -79 -63 1.575  -13 -77 -64 3 2
952 323 -6 -69 -63 1.575 14 -78  -92 20 -9   1301 131 -20 -78 -58 1.45 -10 -78 -68 10  0
953 324 -5 -71 -66 1.65 12 -78  -90 17 -7   1301 131 -20 -78 -58 1.45 -10 -78 -68 10  0
954 324 -3 -73 -70 1.75 11 -78  -89 14 -5   1302 132 -24 -80 -56  1.4  -11 -78 -67 13 2
955 325 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1303 132 -26 -78 -52 1.3 -11 -79 -68  15 -1 
956 325 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1304 133 -22 -80 -58  1.45  -9 -78 -69 13
957 326 -7 -57 -50 1.25 16 -65  -81 23 -8   1305 133  -21 -80  -59 1.475  -9  -77   -68   12
957 revised 326 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   1306 134 -23 -77 -54 1.35  -7 -77 -70 16 0
958 327 -9 -74 -65 1.65  17 -83  -100 26 -9    1307 134  -27 -80  -53 1.325 -9   -77 -68 18
959 327 -4 -78 -74 1.85 14 -84  -98 18 -6   1308 135 -23 -81  -58  1.45  -9   -76 -67  14 5
960 328 -8 -77 -68 1.7 15 -86  -101 23  -10   1309 135 -19 -81 -62 1.55   -8  -69 -61 11 12 
961 328 -3 -71 -68  1.7 11  -80   -91 13  -7    1310 136 -15 -76 -61  1.525    -4 -79  -75  11  -3 
962 329 -2 -73 -71 1.775 11 -80  -91 13 -7   1311 136 -11  -78 -67 1.675 1 -79   -80 12 -1
963 329 -5 -71 -66 1.65 10 -77  -87 15 -6   1312 137 -12 -77 -65 1.625  3 -80  -83  15   -3  
964 330 -13 -72 -59 1.475 9 -77  -86 22 -5   1313 137 -14  -77 -63 1.575  1 -83 -84 15 -6
965 331 -10 -75 -65 1.625 8 -75  -83 18 0   1314 138 -14  -78 -64 1.6  1 -83 -84 15 -5
  1315 138  -14  -77  -63  1.575   3  -82 -85 17 -5 
966 331 -12  -73 -61 1.525 9 -75  -84 21 -2   1316 139 -20 -80 -60 1.5  2 -82  -84 22 -2
967 332 -2  -74 -72 1.8 12 -76  -88 14 -2   1317 139 -15 -80 -65  1.625  -6 -80 -74 9
968 332 -3 -71 -68  1.7 11  -75  -86 14 -4   1318 140 -15 -80 -65  1.625  -9 -76 -67  6 
969 333 -2  -72 -70 1.75 11 -76  -87 13  -4   1319 140 -8  -78 -70 1.75 -7  -76  -71 2
970 333 -4 -71 -67 1.675 11  -77  -88 15 -6   1320 141 -11 -77  -66 1.65 -7  -75 -68  4   2
971 334 -3 -71 -68  1.7  14 -76  -90 17 -5   1321 141 -15   -77   -62  1.55 -8  -76 -68  7
972 334 -2  -73 -71 1.775 14 -80   -94 16 -7    1322 142 -10 -78 -68 1.7  -5 -75 -70 3
973 335 -4 -72 -68 1.7  16 -81  -97 20 -9   1323 142 -11 -77 -66 1.65 -5 -74 -69  3
974 336 -3 -73 -70 1.75 14  -80   -94 17 -7    1324 143 -9 -78 -69 1.725 -7 -74 -67  4 
975 336 -3 -73 -70   1.75 14 -78  -92 17  -5   1325 144 -14 -78  -64  1.6   -6  -74  -68  4  
976 337 -7 -73 -66 1.65 10 -78  -88 17  -5    1326 144 -15 -77  -62  1.55  -7 -74  -67 
977 337 -4 -75 -71 1.775  10 -78  -88 14 -3   1327 145 -11  -76 -65  1.625  -6  -75  -69  5
978 338 -2 -73 -71 1.775  10 -78  -88 12 -5   1328 145 -12   -77   -65  1.625 -7  -73 -66
979 338 -4 -79 -75 1.875  11 -80  -91 15 -1   1329 146 -15 -74 -59 1.475  -2 -72 -70 13
980 339 1 -73 -74 1.85 11 -78  -89 10 -5   1330 146 -14 -78 -64 1.6 -1 -79 -78 13  -1 
981 339 -3 -73 -74 1.55 8 -78  -86 11 -5   1331 147 -19 -76 -57 1.425  0 -78 -78 19  -2 
982 340 -4 -74 -70 1.75 7 -76  -83 11 -2   1332 147 -11 -78  -67 1.675  0  -79  -79  11  -1  
983 340 -6 -76 -70 1.75 12 -77  -89 18 -1   1333 148 -18 -76  -58 1.45    0   -80 -80 18  -4
984 341 -6 -74 -68 1.7 11 -83  -94 17 -9   1334 148 -12 -77 -65 1.625 0 -78   -78   12  -1 
985 342 -5 -78 -73 1.825 9 -81  -90 14 -3   1335 149 -10 -77 -67  1.675  1 -77  -78    11   0
986 342 -1 -74 -73  1.825  9 -79  -88 10 -5   1336 149 -12 -75 -63 1.575  1 -76  77 13   -1 
987 343 -7 -74 -67 1.675  9 -77  -86 16 -3   1337 150 -13 -76 -63 1.575 1 -79  -80 14 -3
988 343 -10 -75 -65 1.625  8 -77  -85 18 -2   1338 150 -18 -75 -57 1.425 0 -78 -78  18   -3
989 344 -10 -74 -64 1.6 9 -79  -88 19 -5   1339 151  -18  -77 -59 1.475  2 -77  -79 20   0 
990 345 -1 -76 -75 1.875  9 -79  -88 10 -3   1340  151  -15 -76 -61 1.525  3 -77  -80   18   -1 
991 345  -3 -73 -70 1.75  4 -80  -84 7 -7   1341 152 -9 -76   -67 1.675 1 -77   -78 10 -1 
992 345  -6 -73 -67 1.675 4 -78  -82 10 -5   1342 152 -7  -80  -73 1.825  -4  -77  -73  3  3 
993 346 -8 -73 -65 1.625 3 -76  -79 11 -3   1343 153 -8 -74 -66 1.65 -6 -71  -65   2    3  
994 346 -5  -79 -68 1.7 3 -77   -80 8 2   1344 153 -14 -75 -61 1.525 -3 -72 -69 11 3
995 347 -4 -74 -70 1.75 5 -78  -83 9 -4   1345 154 -19 -75  -56 1.4  -1  -74  -73  18  1
996 348 -4 -72 -68  1.7  2 -75  -77 6 -3   1346 155 -16 -75   -59  1.475   9 -73 -82 25 2
997 348 -13 -74 -61 1.525 1 -76  -77 14 -2   1347 155 -16 -75  -59 1.475     9  -85 -94 25 -10
998 348 -8 -73 -65 1.625  1 -74  -75 -1   1348 156 -15 -76  -61  1.525  11 -85  -96 26 -9
999 349 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  N/A N/A N/A   1349 156 -9 -73 -64 1.6  10  -84  -94  19 -11
1000 350 -12 -74 -62 1.55 1 -75  -76 13 -1   1350 157 -9 -73  -64  1.6  4 -79 -83 13 -6
1001 350 -12 -79 -67  1.675  2 -77  -79 14  +2    1351 157 -12 -72 -60 1.5  4 -79 -83 16 -7
1002 351 -12  -77 -65 1.625   1 -77   -78 13 0   1352 158 -6   -73  -67 1.675  4  -78 -82 10  -5
1003 351 -10 -74  -64 1.6  -77    -78 11 -3   1353 158  -6   -76 -70 1.75 12 -75 -87 18   1 
1004 352  -9 -74  -65 1.625 -75  -76 10 -1    1354 159 -5 -75  -70  1.75  3 -78 -81 -3
1005 352  -12   -75 -63 1.575 -75   -76 13    1355 159 -11 -75   -64   1.6   -78 -82  15  -3 
1006   353   -56 revised to -13 -78   -22   0.367 revised to 1.625   -42 revised to 0   -77    -35 revised to -77   14  revised to 13    1     1356 160 -5  -74 -69 1.725 -77 -80   -3  
  1357 160 -16  -72  -56 1.4    3   -79  -82 19 -7
  1358 161 -16   -74   -58 1.45 2 -78 -80 18 -4
1007 353  -12  -79  -67  1.675  -3 revised to 1 -77   -80 revised to -78 13  2   1359 162  -13 -76  -63 1.575 2 -76 -78 15    0 
1008   354   -66 revised to -12   -76 revised to -79   -10 revised to -67    0.25 revised to 1.625   -56 revised to 2   -77     -21 revised to -79   10 revised to 14    2     1360 162  -16  -76   -60 1.5  -76 -78  18    0 
  1361 163  -16 -76  -60 1.5  1 -77 -78  17 -1
  1362 163  -17 -74  -57 1.425   2   -77  -79 19  -3
1009 354  -12 -75 -63 1.575 1 -76  -77 13 -1   1363 164 -14 -75 -60 1.5  3   -77  -80 17 -2
1010 355 -11 -74 -63  1.575 -1 -76  -75 10 -2   1364 164 -16  -74   -58  1.45    2    -76   -78   18   -4 
1011 355 -12 -78 -66 1.65 0 -75  -75 12 3   1365 165 -15  -74   -59 1.475     3   -75  -78  18  -1 
1012 356 -16 -81 -65 1.625 -1 -77  -76 15 4   1366 165  -15   -75  -60  1.5 -75  -79 19  0 
1013 356 -12 -80 -68 1.7 0 -77  -77 12 3   1367 166 -14  -74 -60  1.5  2  -76  -78  16 -2 
1014 356 -14 -77 -63 1.575 0 -77  -77 14 0   1368 167 -16   -74    -58   1.45 -75   -79 20 -1 
1015 357 -13 -75 -62 1.55 1 -76  -77 14 -1   1369 167 1 -73 -74 1.85 3 -76  -79 2 -3
1016 358 -11 -76 -65 1.625 0 -77 -77 11 -1     1370 168 -1 -74 -73 1.825 4 -76 -80 5 -2
1017 359 -12 -78 -66  1.65 -1 -77 -76 11 1   1371 168   -2  -75 -73  1.825  3 -74  -77   5   1 
1018 359 -15 -79 -64 1.6 -1 -78  -77 14   1372 169 -4 -74 -70 1.75 1 -69 -70 5 5
1019    0 -14 -36 -22 0.55 -2 -24  -22 12 12   1373 169 -3 -74  -71 1.775  -70   -70    3  4
1019 revised
  0 -14 -81 -67  1.675 -2  -78  -76  12  3   1374 170 -5  -74 -69 1.725  5 -74  -79  10     0  
                        1375 170  -2  -73 -71  1.775   5  -75  -80  -2 
                        1376 171    0    -75   -75  1.875  6 -74   -80   1 
                        1377 172  1   -76  -77   1.925  6   -77    -83 5 -1 
                        1378 172 1 -76 -77  1.925  -78 -84 -2  
                        1379 173 -7 -77 -70  1.75  9 -77   -86 16 
                        1380 173 -7   -74   -67 1.675  10 -77  -87 17 -3
                        1381 174 -8  -73   -65 1.625   10 -78  -88 18 -5
                        1382 174 -4 -76   -72 1.8  11 -77   -88 15 -1
                        1383 175 3 -73 -76 1.9  10 -76  -86 7 -3
                        1384 176 2 -74  -76  1.9  7 -74 -81 5
                        1385 176 -3  -75 -72  1.9 10  -74 -84  13
                        1386 177 -1  -74  -73  1.825  10  -77 -87 11 -3 
                        1387 177 2 -74  -76 1.9 17 -79 -96 19 -5
                        1388 178 4 -73 -77 1.925 18 -81 -99 14 -8
                        1389 178 N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A 
                        1390 179 N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A 
                        1391 179 N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A 
                        1392 180 N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A 

Figure 1 above: The ground temperature sensor on MSL is only accurate to 10K.

Figure 2 above shows a graph of diurnal temperature drops in degrees Celsius for MSL Year 2 summer (orange) and MSL Year 2 to 3 winter (blue). It can be seen that although there are exceptions to the rule, in general temperature drops were greater from day to night in the summer (with an average drop of 68.0342° C) than in the winter (when the average drop was 62.1073° C). 

Figure 3 below: According to MSL, daily high temperatures are higher on the ground than they are in the air. Here we look at how much higher. It's an average of 11.39 degrees Celsius in summer and 15.43 degrees in the winter. But, again, the ground temperature sensor is only accurate to 10 degrees Celsius.

       As is shown in Figure 1, the air and ground temperature sensors on MSL are deeply flawed because of their crude accuracies. For the air temperature sensor the accuracy is to 5° C (9° C) while in the ground temperature sensor its accuracy is just 10° C (18° F).  The air temperature sensor has a resolution of 0.1 ° C, but for the ground sensor it’s a full 2° C.

       On Figure 3 we see enormous variation in the high temperature differences recorded from the air temperatures recorded on the weather boom and the ground temperatures 1.5 meters below the boom. If NASA is correct then the average pressure on Mars at areoid is about 6.1 mbar with pressures at MSL (about 4.4 km below areoid) ranging between about 7.3 mbar and 9.25 mbar (compared to a 1,013.25 mbar average pressure on Earth at sea level). With such low, near vacuum pressures, we should expect temperature differences between 1.5 meters and the ground to be fairly consistent from day to day, but that's not at all what the data shows. In the summer the difference in temperature between the two elevations was as little as 2° C and as much as 26° C. In the winter the difference in temperature between the two elevations was as little as 1° C and as much as 30° C.

        JPL notes that in its graph of plots with daily minimum and maximum of ground temperature measured by REMS, a change in the pattern just after Sol 120 corresponds to Curiosity driving onto a type of ground with higher thermal inertia -- thus cooling off more slowly in the evening and warming up more slowly in the morning. They write that, the higher thermal inertia of this area was predicted from orbital infrared measurements and is likely due to greater abundance of exposed bedrock relative to soil or sand." That's fine, but we would still not expect such radical variation in differences of air and ground temperature to occur as often as they did.

       While there are air temperature sensors on Booms 1 and 2 of MSL, a ground temperature sensor is only found on Boom 1 which was damaged on landing. No ground temperatures were published by the REMS Team or JPL until about 9 months after landing. When they suddenly appeared I asked JPL public affairs man Guy Webster about where they suddenly came from, He asserted that “Damage on landing did not include the infrared sensor that provides ground temp information. Ground temps through about Sol 200 were charted in April on the bottom half of http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16913.” Given that we had already successfully prevailed upon him and JPL to alter all (never-changing) wind data for MSL to altered from 7.2 km/hour from the east to Not Available, and we had likewise succeeded in having him alter all never-changing sunrise/sunset times to line up with calculations that my son (David) and I had done, it was and remains our belief that JPL should likewise dump its ground temperature readings and replace them too with N/A. If they were more reliable we could likely use the differences between air and ground to help calculate air density (and pressure). But the simple fact appears to be that the data is not reliable. MSL has given us fantastic pictures of Mars, great geological data and new understanding about water just under the surface in many places (as with a frozen fresh-water sea at Utopia Planitia that has an area of the State of New Mexico). In some cases the proximity of water to the surface likely affects ground temperature, but the ground temperature sensor is not sufficient to establish it.

       The most important data about Mars remains obscure - weather data. We have no reliable surface wind data after the Viking 1 and 2 landers of the late 1970's. We have no reliable air temperature data, no reliable pressure data, and no reliable relative humidity data. We had 36 years of wrong sky color, from 1976 until 2012 that was ordered by former NASA Director James Fletcher. Further, no lander after Vikings 1 and 2 has included a life-detection experiment, although those two landers (4,000 miles apart) apparently did detect life. The clearest thing detected about Mars so far seems to be the stonewalling that has gone on for four decades with respect to giving us accurate weather data and a commitment to send people there. Hopefully either Elon Musk of SpaceX or President Trump will alter the status quo.