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|MAIN DOCUMENTS SUPPORTING OUR POSITION THAT ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA IS FLAWED:||HOTTEST CURRENT FINDINGS |
3 DECEMBER 2017: MARS CORRECT - CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA
ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 8-year study critiques 1,889 Sols (over 5 terrestrial years, 2.82 Martian years) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the previously accepted small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking 1 and 2 (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar - altered to 14 mbar in 2017). For MSL there were several pressures published at or slightly above the initial advertised upper range of the pressure sensor. Indeed, from August 30 to September 5, 2012 pressures initially published were from 737 mbar to 747 mbar – two orders of magnitude high – only to be retracted. We challenged them all and NASA revised them down, however 8 years into this audit it has come to our attention that of two pressure sensors ordered by NASA for Mars Pathfinder, one of them (Tavis Dash No. 1) could in fact measure up to 1,034 mbar. Further, for the MSL according to an Abstract to the American Geophysical Union for the Fall 2012 meeting, The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) states of their MSL (and Phoenix) Vaisala transducers, “The pressure device measurement range is 0 – 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C – 55°C, but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 – 12 hPa..” So while we originally thought that of the five landers on Mars that had meteorological suites, none of them could measure Earth-like pressures, in fact, assuming that the higher pressure sensor Pathfinder Tavis Dash 1 (0-15 PSIA/1,034 mbar) was sent rather than Tavis Dash 2 (0-0.174 PSIA/12 mbar), three landers were actually equipped to get the job done, but the public was largely kept in the dark about it. All 19 low uv values were removed when we asked about them, although they eventually restored 12 of them. REMS always-sunny opacity reports were contradicted by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter photos. Why REMS Team data was so wrong is a matter of speculation beyond the basic thrust of this report, but we demonstrate that their weather data was regularly revised after they studied critiques in working versions of this report and on our websites at http://marscorrect.com and http://davidaroffman.com.
We note that Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes which we link to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurement failed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems included confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA Ames could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons and similar storms above Olympus Mons (over 21 km high), dust storm opacity, snow at Phoenix, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.
NOVEMBER 10, 2017: PowerPoint entitled Mars Correct? Mars is wet! This is the PowerPoint version of our Basic Report (Mars Correct – Critique of All NASA Mars Weather Data).
DECEMBER 7, 2017: Update to Dr. Desai's Martian Atmosphere Model Challenge and Loss of the Schiaparelli Lander.
September 20, 2017: High altitude plumes seen over Mars. This article looks whether such clouds are due to an asteroid impact, volcanic event, a massive spiral storms like those seen over Arsia Mons and also over Olympus Mons, and a possible a nuclear event.
NEWS FLASH: My son and I were interviewed about Mars for 3 hours 42 minutes on September 3, 2017. The interview was conducted via Skype by Marco de Marco and Matteo Fagone in Amsterdam, and simultaneously translated into Italian. You can view it at this link.
MAY 7, 2017: Unrealistic MSL ground temperature lows. Temperatures are correlated with Curiosity positions between Sols 1635 and 1659. The tree stump-like object's position is noted.
FEBRUARY 19, 2017: New report sections 14.4 to 14.5 detail MSL Air and Ground Temperature Differences, MSL Diurnal Temperature Variation.
FEBRUARY 10, 2017: Comparison of diurnal temperature changes for MSL summer (Year 2) with MSL winter (Year 2 to 3).
FEBRUARY 2, 2017: We rexamine Dr. Prasun Desai's ask for help with Martian atmosphere models and look at the ExoMars 2016 crash.
DECEMBER 15, 2016: Frozen Sea at Utopia PLanitia, Mars
OCTOBER 20, 2016: ExoMars 2016 Attempted Landing on Mars fails.
OCTOBER 19, 2016: It looks like the joint European-Russian Space Agency ExoMars mission attained orbit but the Shiaparelli lander signal was lost during the landing sequence. Too bad. The lander has a Dreams-P pressure sensor that apparently was supposed to measure pressures up to 50 hPa (millibars). That's still too low according to our math, but we looked forward to seeing some useful data soon. Information on the weather package may be found at http://ssed.gsfc.nasa.gov/IPM/PDF/1035.pdf.
APRIL 7, 2016: The REMS Team again publishes bizarre pressure spikes at MSL – including one on Sol 1301 above the capacity of the pressure sensor. Will they alter their data again now that we point it out? APRIL 11, 2016: The answer to the above question is yes. What we do here looks like meteorological prediction. But it’s really behavioral and political analysis.
Also see MSL Sol 370, 1160, 1161, 1300 and 1301 Pressure Anomalies. Note the prediction that we expect the REMS Team to publish an MSL Year 2 minimum pressure – likely 726 to 730 Pa – around Ls 150 on May 10, 2016.
MARCH 9, 2016: Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2. This page underwent major revisions on 2/22/2016 after the FMI/REMS Team/JPL read the issues we raised about low UV and then tossed out all low UV data. More and more REMS data seems to be a reaction to critiques on our Report and on this site rather than an illustration of actual conditions found on Mars.
|FEBRUARY 16, 2016: Warm Winter Ground Temperatures (many above freezing) at MSL and Possible Life Seen In Conjunction With Them. We look at whether slope plays a role in the warm temperatures as is the case with Recurring Slope Lineae associated with running water on Mars.|
|JANUARY 17, 2016: Possible spherical life spotted on Mars by MSL.|
MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY DAILY WEATHER REPORTS
MARS SCIENCE LAB SOLS and LINKS
|SOLAR LONGITUDE (Ls)||SEASONS|
|1-669|| 150 to 150 ||4 SEASONS|
|670 to 866||151 to 270 ||WINTER TO SUMMER YEAR 2|
|865 to 1,020|| 270 to 0 (360) ||SUMMER YEAR 2|
|1,019 to 1,213|| 0 to 90 ||FALL YEAR 2|
|1,213 to 1,392|| 90 to 180 ||WINTER YEAR 2-3|
|1392 to 1,534||180 to 270 ||SPRING YEAR 3 |
|1,534 to 1,687||270 to 0 (360)||SUMMER YEAR 3 |
|1,688 and onward||0 to 90||FALL YEAR 3 |
|COMPARISONS BETWEEN MSL YEAR 1 AND MSL YEAR 2 DATA FOR THE SAME LS|
|Pressure and Ultraviolet Radiation|
|High Air and Ground Temperatures for MSL|| |
Note 1: Ground temperature sensor is only accurate to 10K.
Note 2 dated February 5, 2016: There are unexpected ground temperatures at or above freezing for almost every sol for 3 weeks after the start of MSL Year 2’s winter.
|Low Air and Ground Temperatures for MSL|
|MSL Day Length and Temperatures|
|Diurnal Air Temperature Variation aat MSL||New on August 1, 2016|
SECTION LINK FOR THE BASIC REPORT OF MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA
FULL NAME OF SECTION
Description of the Section
Mars Correct Basic Report Abstract and Section 1
Abstract, Introduction, and Martian Dust Devils
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2 to 2.1
Overview of Instrumentation Problems
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2.2 to 2.4
Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and Phoenix Pressure Issues. Finnish Meteorological Institute Issues.
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2.5 to 2.6
MSL Pressure Sensor Pegs Out at Sol 370, and the Viking Dust filter. Sols 1160 and 1161 have pressures greater than transducer capability to record.
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2.6 to 2.7
Viking Pressure Reports & Digitization, Consistent Daily Pressure Spikes, MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 3 to 4.1.2
Caves & Spiral storms on Arsia Mons; Snow, Water Ice & Carbon Dioxide; Ls of Minimum Pressure and Maximum Pressure
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 4.1.2 to 6
Ls of Minimum Pressure and Maximum Pressure (continued), Radio Occultation and Spectroscopy.
PREDICTION MADE ON APRIL 29, 2016: At this rate JPL should claim a Year 2 minimum pressure of about 728 to 730 Pa around Ls 147 to 150 between MSL Sols 1332 and 1338.
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 7 to 7.2.1
Martian Wind Problems, Anemometers/Telltales, & Sand Movements
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 8 to 9
Downrange Landings; Dust Opacity and Pressure
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 10 to 11
Excessive Deceleration During Aerobraking Operations and Mars Pathfinder Issues
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 12 to 12.2
Potential Pressure on Mars, Methane, and Sky Color
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 12.3 to 12.4
Recurring Slope Lineae, Prechlorates, and Running Water on Mars, High end of pressure on Mars
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 13 to 14.1
Relative Humidity and Temperature Measurement Concerns, Ground temperature problems
Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 14.1 to 18
Conclusions, Recommendations, Acknowledgements, and Afterword – What difference could all this possibly make?
Mars Correct Basic Report References
Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Annexes (With Links) And Appendices
Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures and Tables In The Basic Report
Report figure & table links
Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures and Tables In The Basic Report
SPECIFIC LIST OF SECTIONS IN THE BASIC REPORT WITH PAGE NUMBERS IN THE PDF
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Table of Contents||iii|
|List of Illustrations||iv|
|1.1 Comparison of Martian and terrestrial dust devils||2|
|1.1.1 Geographic Occurrences and the Greenhouse and Thermophoresis Effect||2|
|1.1.2 Seasonal Occurrences and Electrical Properties…||3|
| 1.1.3. Size and Shape ||3|
|1.1.4. Diurnal Formation Rate and Lifetime||4|
|1.1.5 Wind Speeds||4|
|1.1.6 Core Temperature Excursions||4|
|1.1.7 Dust Particle Size – The Problem of Martian Dust <2 Microns and Wind Speeds.||4|
|1.1.8. Core Pressure Excursions||4|
| 1.2. NASA Ames Test of Martian Pressures and Dust Devils ||7|
|2. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION PROBLEMS||8|
|2.1 Viking 2 and Gay-Lussac’s Law||10|
|2.2 Pathfinder and Phoenix Pressure Issues||15|
|2.3. Which Transducers Were Used?||18|
|2.4. Issues Raised by the FMI||19|
|2.5. DID ANY TAVIS OR VAISALA TRANSDUCERS PEG OUT AT THEIR MAXIMUM PRESSURES?||25|
|2.5.1 How extraordinary was the (temporary) 1,149 Pa pressure spike of MSL Sol 370?||25|
|2.5.2. The importance of gleaning data from identification of our web site readers.||26|
|2.5.3 Why is it so wrong to alter data to fit an expected curve?||32|
|2.6 The Dust filter on Viking||36|
|2.6.1. The issue of Viking pressure reports and digitization||36|
|2.6.2. The issue of daily pressure spikes at consistent time-bins.||36|
|2.7. MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco||42|
|3. CAVES ON AND SPIRAL CLOUDS ABOVE ARSIA MONS ON MARS||45|
|4. THE ISSUES OF SNOW, WATER ICE, AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON MARS.||48|
|4.1. Annual Pressure Fluctuations Recorded by Viking 1, Viking 2, and Phoenix - Maximum Pressure in the Northern Winter?.||48|
|4.1.1. Ls of minimum pressure||48|
|4.1.2. Ls of maximum pressure||48|
|5. RADIO OCCULTATION||60|
|5.1 Shifting Standards – The Relationship of the MOLA Topography of Mars to the Mean Atmospheric Pressure.||65|
|6. SPECTROSCOPY PRESSURE READINGS BY MARS EXPRESS ORBITER.||65|
|7. MARTIAN WIND PROBLEMS||66|
|7.1 Anemometer/Telltale Wind Speed Issues…||67|
|7.2 Martian Bedforms – Too Much Movement of Sand Dunes and Ripples for 6.1 mbar||68|
|7.2.1 Issues Raised by the paper on Planet-wide sand motion on Mars by Bridges et al. (2012)||69|
|8. DO DOWNRANGE LANDINGS MEAN THINNER OR THICKER AIR?||74|
|9. DUST OPACITY AND PRESSURE||77|
|10. EXCESSIVE DECELERATION DURING AEROBRAKING OPERATIONS||78|
|10.1 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)||79|
|10.2 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)||79|
|11. MARS PATHFINDER PRESSURES||80|
|12. THE POTENTIAL PRESSURE ON MARS||81|
|12.1 Did NASA ever publicly back 20 mbar on Mars?||82|
|12.2 Biology, Methane, and a Possible Hint of the Real Martian Air Pressure?||83|
|12.3 Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Perchlorates and Running Water on Mars||86|
|12.3.1 Length of daylight where RSL are found||87|
|12.3.2 Latitudes, times and temperatures for evidence of running water…||87|
|12.3.3 The role of perchlorates in RSL||87|
|12.4 Other Water on Mars – the Frozen Sea at Utopia Planitia||92|
|12.5 The High End of Pressure Estimates for Mars…||94|
|13. RELATIVE HUMIDITY||98|
|14. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT CONCERNS||101|
|14.1. Ground Temperature Problems||103|
|14.2. Winter Ground Temperatures above freezing in MSL Year 2||109|
|14.3. Why the early winter ground temperatures are so important and possible life seen on Sol 1185||109|
|14.4. MSL Air and Ground Temperature Differences||113|
|14.5. MSL Diurnal Temperature Variations||115|
|14.5.1. Why does the temperature fall more degrees at MSL in summer nights than winter nights?||117|
|14.6. Probable Failure of the Ground Temperature Sensor or Personnel Issues?||118|
|14.6.1 Failure of the Temperature Sensor.||122|
|14.6.2 Personnel Issues.||122|
|15. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND CLOUD COVER AT MSL||124|
|15.1 Solar Longitude for sols at MSL with very high and low ultraviolet radiation.||126|
|AFTERWORD: What difference could this all possibly make?||137|
|Note on January 20, 2017||143|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE BASIC REPORT
|1||Arsia Mons dust devils||3|
|2||Utah dust devil pressure drop||5|
|3||Pressure drops at Phoenix and Pathfinder||5|
|4||Relative magnitude of 0.62 mbar increase in pressure for Viking 1 at its sol 332.3 and pressure drops or 79 convective vortices/dust devils at Mars pathfinder||6|
|5A||First photo from the surface of Mars and dust kicked up||9|
|5B||Rocks on the deck of the MSL Curiosity||9|
|6||Pressure calculator with Gay-Lussac Pressure Law and Viking 2 results.||11|
|7||Prediction success totals per time-bin and corresponding % of successful predictions.||12|
|8||Sample of Annex F – Viking 1 daily pressure predictions & measurements with cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions||13|
|9A-9C||Relationship of temperature changes to pressure changes on Viking 2||14|
|10A||Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011||16|
|10B||Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484||17|
|10C||Three different Tavis transducers||18|
|11A||Vaisala pressure transducer on Phoenix and MSL||19|
|11B||Relative size of dust filters for Mars landers||20|
|12A||Pressure and Temperatures Recorded by Phoenix||21|
|12B||Except for Sol 370 the black MSL pressure curve is suspiciously too close to the Viking 2 curve above it and the Viking 1 curve below it.||22|
|13||Quality control Individuals test.||25|
|14A||MSL sensor pegged out at max pressure||27|
|14B||MSL pressure sols 369-371||28|
|14C||The REMS team alters the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data||29|
|14D||Ashima Research has not yet altered the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data||29|
|14E||REMS also alters pressures for Sols 1160 and 1161.||30|
|14F||REMS again revises pressures for Sols 1300 and 1301.||31|
|14G||REMS alters temperature data too when it is off the curve.||32|
|15A||MSL REMS Block Diagram||33|
|15B||Real Mars Sky Color||33|
|16A||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.||38|
|16B||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134 -199.||38|
|16C||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.||38|
|16D||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304||38|
|16E||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334||39|
|16F||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350||39|
|16G||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175||39|
|16H||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.||39|
|16I||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.||40|
|16J||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.||40|
|16K||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291- 305.||40|
|16L||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361||40|
|17A||REMS Team data confusion||43|
|17B||Data day length and wind report changes from Ashima Research due to our efforts||43|
|18A-D||Inverse relationship between MSL pressures and temperatures||44|
|19||Caves on Arsia Mons||46|
|20||Spiral clouds over Arsia Mons||47|
|21A||1,177Pa and 1,200 Pa maximum pressures published||49|
|21B||Approximate display of how MSL pressure data fits in with VL-2, VL-1 and Phoenix data.||50|
|22||Ashima Research does not support exact minimum MSL pressures published by the REMS Team||51|
|23||Pressure curve for MSL’s first 866 sols.||57|
|24||Radio Occultation Points on Mars with locations of Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons indicated||63|
|25||MOLA map of Mars with topographic features, landing sites, and methane plumes||64|
|26A||Mars Express OMEGA spectroscopy-derive surface pressures||65|
|26B||Four years of in situ pressures at Viking 1 lander site||65|
|27||Phoenix telltale waving in Martian wind||67|
|28||Wind speeds recorded at Viking 1 for its sols 1 to 116 and 134 to 350||70|
|29||Wind speeds recorded at Viking 2 for its sols 1 to 399||71|
|30||Erasure of Spirit’s tracks during the 2007 global dust storm||72|
|31||Dust Storms and pressures recorded at Vikings 1 and 2.||73|
|32||Reconstructed density for Spirit landing||75|
|33||Reconstructed density for Opportunity entry||75|
|34||Reconstructed density for Phoenix entry||76|
|35||Dust Storm at Luke Air Forces Base, July 5, 2011.||77|
|36||Opacity changes at Opportunity from sols 1205 to 1235.||78|
|37||VL1 pressure and opacity||78|
|38||Actual Dynamic Pressure – normalized to an altitude of 121 km||79|
|39A||Time-averaged surface pressures for 30 sols of Pathfinder||80|
|39B||Diurnal pressure cycle for MSL Sol 10 and MPF Sols 9 and 10||81|
|40||History of beliefs about Martian Atmospheric Pressure||82|
|41A||Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)||83|
|41B||Methane spikes seen by MSL at Gale Crater.||84|
|42A-I plus Plates 5 and 6||The Color of the Martian Sky||85|
|43A||Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL)||89|
|43B||Location of RSL on Mars||90|
|43C||Projected surface and subsurface temperature to 10 cm depth at Melas Chasma||90|
|43D||Relation between temperature, season & direction for RSL at Melas Chasma||90|
|43E||Spectroscopy, RSL & perchlorates/Perchlorates and boiling point on Mars||91|
|43F||Map of Utopia Planitia where a water ice sea was found on Mars||93|
|44||Pressure predictions based on stratus clouds 16 km over Mars Pathfinder||97|
|45||Relative humidity is missing from REMS weather reports||98|
|46||Relative humidity claims for Gale crater||99|
|47||Relative humidity in the blast zone, arriving at Rocknest, leaving Rocknest and at Glenelg in Gale Crater.||100|
|48||The REMS Team drops above freezing temperatures to below freezing||102|
|49||Huge uncertainty of MSL ground temperatures||103|
|50A||MSL temperature sensor range||104|
|50B||MSL ground temperature sensor||105|
|50C||Mars Science Laboratory high air and ground temperatures for 2+ Martian years.||106|
|50D||Mars Science Laboratory low air and ground temperatures for 2+ Martian years.||107|
|51||Unaveraged periodic temperature data from Mars Pathfinder (0.25 meters to 1 meter height)||108|
|52||The green spherical and cocoon-like objects seen on sols 1185 and 1189. The green spheres might be photosynthetic life.||110|
|53||Elevations and ground temperatures encountered while MSL was at positions noted by JPL. Possible life was seen on Sol 1185, along with a warmer than expected high ground temperature. The position noted for MSL for Sol 1248 is a return to within 20 meters of where the potential life was seen before. Then it moved within about 10 meters of the site.||111|
|54||Some of the unusually warm ground temperatures including five above freezing seen early in MSL Year 2 Winter.||112|
|55||Diurnal drop in high temperatures from the ground up to 1.5 meters above ground level at MSL||113|
|56||Location of meteorological sensors on Booms 1 and 2 of MSL||114|
|57||Graph of air temperature drops at MSL for its summer (Year 2) and winter (Year 2 to 3)||117|
|58||While low air temperatures for sols 1670 and 1671 were both -76° C, the ground temperature lows differed by 30° C.||118|
|59||JPL published the positions for MSL Sols 1635, 1636, 1639, 1642, 1643, 1645, 1646, 1648 and 1649. During these dates low ground temperatures varied between -79° and -93° C. However, the dates that they did not show had ground temperature lows that varied from -80° and -111° C with five temperatures colder than -101° C, the coldest temperature ever observed by MSL.||121|
|60A||Alteration of REMS Team report for Sol 1605 after we questioned it.It is quite apparent that before March, 2017 reports that vary too much from the preceding day or previous Martian year at the same Ls do not survive long at the REMS site at http://cab.inta-csic.es/rems/en.||123|
|60B||Initial low µv values reported by the REMS Team and how the reports were altered. All low µv values between Sol 608 (April 22, 2014) and Sol 1200 on December 22, 2015 were obliterated by February 22, 2016.||127|
|61||Original distribution of very high and low µv values at Gale Crater as related to solar longitude as Mars orbits around the sun.||128|
|62||The true blue color of Mars||139|
TABLES IN THE BASIC REPORT
|1||Pressure at various elevations on Mars based on a scale height of 10.8 and a pressure at Mars Areoid of 6.1 mbar.||7|
|2||Viking 1 cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions.||11|
|3||Pressures revised by JPL/MSL after we highlighted them||23-24|
|4A||Sample of how the Mars Correct team tracks weather data published by the REMS Team/JPL||35|
|4B||Digitization limitations and the specific pressures reported by VL-2 for its first summer on Mars||37|
|5||Viking 1 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies||41|
|6||Viking 2 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies||42|
|7||Pressures @ LS 90 and minimum pressures seen by VL-1, VL-2 and MSL||52|
|8||Landers and expected pressures based on landing altitude||53|
|9||Comparison of Viking 1 and Viking 2 Pressures for Ls 270||54|
|10||Variations in day length at Ls 70 South||55|
|11||Comparison of Martian Pressures via Radio Occultation & Calculated Scale Height Calculations||60|
|12||Six attempts by Mariners 4, 6 and 7 to measure pressure by radio occultation.||61|
|13||Profile of the windiest Viking day on Mars||69|
|14||MSL temperatures altered by the REMS Team in July, 2013||101|
|15||Usually warm ground temperatures early in the winter of MSL year 2||110|
|16||Coldest air and ground temperatures for the first 29 Martian months of MSL operations on Mars||116|
|17||MSL maximum and minimum air and ground temps for Sols 1634 to 1684||119|
|18A||Ultraviolet radiation reported through 1,256 sols at MSL (before NASA eliminated all low ultraviolet radiation values).||124|
|18B||REMS-revised μv radiation reported through 1,328 sols after all 19 original low μv values were dropped.||125|
ANNEXES (with links) AND APPENDICES
|Annex Abstract||Overview of data in the Annexes||A-1|
|ANNEX A|| |
VIKING 1 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES and Mars Time-Bin Clock.
|ANNEX A Appendix 1|| |
VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.
|A-3 to A-22|
|Appendix 2||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134-199.||A-23 toA-34|
|Appendix 3||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.||A-35 to A-38|
|Appendix 4||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304||A-39 to A-50|
|Appendix 5||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334||A-51 to A-55|
|Appendix 6||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350||A-56 to A-59|
|ANNEX B|| |
VIKING 2 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES
|B-1 to B-39|
|Appendix 1||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175||B-2 to B-5|
|Appendix 2||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.||B-6 to B-10|
|Appendix 3||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.||B-11 to B-20|
|Appendix 4||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.||B-21 to B-26|
|Appendix 5||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291-305.||B-27 to B-30|
|Appendix 6||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361||B-31 to B-39|
|ANNEX C|| |
VIKING 2 STUCK PRESSURE GAUGE
|C-1 to C-54|
|ANNEX D||PERCENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASURED PRESSURES ON VIKING AND GAY-LUSSAC/ AMONTON’S LAW-BASED PREDICTIONS http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20D%20%209%20September%202013.pdf||D-1 to D-171|
|Appendix 1||Viking 1 Sols 1 to 199||D-3 to D-94|
|Appendix 2||Viking 1 Sols 200 to 350||D-95 to D-171|
|ANNEX E|| |
Measured vs. Predicted Pressure Percent Differences for Viking-1 Time-bins 0.3 and 0.34
|E-1 to E-14|
|ANNEX F|| |
Percent Difference Experimental Summary
|F-1 to F-18|
|Appendix 1||Percent Difference Flow Chart for Viking 1 Sols 1 to 116 & 200 to 350||F-5 to F-16|
|Appendix 2||Histogram with temperatures at successful predictions per time-bins||F-17 to F-18|
|ANNEX G|| |
Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results
|G-1 to G-13|
|ANNEX H|| |
Calibration Effort for the Mars Pathfinder Tavis Pressure Transducer and IMP Windsock Experiment
|H-1 to H-43|
|ANNEX I|| |
Pressures Reported by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS).
|I-1 to I-28|
|Appendix 1||Print Screen Record of Original REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Reports||I-12 to I-28|
|ANNEX J|| |
Concessions by Ashima Research and How to Correctly Calculate Daylight Hours for MSL
|J- 1to J-19|
|ANNEX K|| |
REMS Team and Ashima Research Weather Reports from Sol 15 to Sol 299.
|K-1 to K-34|
|ANNEX L|| |
How Martian Day Length Varies with Ls and Latitude
|L-1 to L-10|
|ANNEX M|| |
One Year of MSL Weather Reports
|M-1 to M-38|
|ANNEX N|| |
Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 151 to Ls 270 (late winter to end of spring), Sols 670 to 864
|N-1 to N-13|
|ANNEX O|| |
Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 270 to Ls 0 (summer), Sols 865 to 1,020
|O-1 to O-11|
|ANNEX P|| |
Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 0 to Ls 90 (autumn), Sols 1019 to 1,213
|P-1 to P-15|
|ANNEX Q|| |
Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 to 3 Winter, Ls 90 to Ls 180 (Sols 1,213 to 1,392)
|Q-1 to Q-18|
|ANNEX R|| |
Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Spring, Ls 180 to Ls 270 (Sols 1,392 to 1,534
|R-1 to R-37|
|ANNEX S|| |
Two Martian Years of MSL High Air and Ground Temperatures
|S-1 to S41|
|ANNEX T|| |
Two Martian Years of MSL Low Air and Ground Temperatures
|T-1 to T-64|
|ANNEX U|| |
Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation and Pressures at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2
|U-1 to U-28|
|ANNEX V|| |
Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Summer, Ls 270 to Ls 0 (Sols 1,534 to 1,686
|V-1 to V-28|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX A
|1||Martian Time-Bin Clock||A-2|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX F
|1||Prediction success totals per time-bin.||F-1|
|2||% Differences between measured & predicted pressures as a function of time||F-2|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX G
|1||Tavis pressure sensors tested according to the Alvin Seiff papers||G-1|
|2||Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011||G-2|
|3||NASA Report No. TM X-74020 (Mitchell Report: Tavis Transducer Tests)||G-3|
|4||Photo of the Tavis P-4 pressure sensor||G-4|
|5||Transducer Selection Slide by Professor James E. Tillman||G-6|
|6||Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484||G-7|
|7||Design diagrams for Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 and P-8)||G-8|
|8||P-4 Transducers (S/N 1583 and S/N 1591) used for test of Viking pressures sensors after the launch of the two Vikings.||G-9|
|9||Relative sizes of dust filters used for Tavis and Vaisala transducers.||G-9|
|10||Table of Characteristics of Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 & P-8)||G-10|
|11||Tavis Transducer purchasing information||G-11|
|12||Temperature Malfunction During (Viking) Cruise Environment||G-13|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX I
|1||Pressure data for MSL Sols 10.5 to 13||I-1|
|2||MSL temperature data for Sols 10 to 11.5||I-1|
|3A||REMS Team and Ashima Research coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how Ashima was forced to alter their reports on May 11, 2013.||I-2|
|3B||REMS Team coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how their data was revised again on July 3, 2013.||I-3|
|4||REMS Weather Booms on MSL||I-5|
|5||Close up of MSL Weather Booms||I-5|
|6a to 6d||Temperature and pressure were inversely related for the MSL||I-8|
|7||Combined VL-1, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL Pressure Curves to MSL at Ls 10||I-9|
|8||MSL pressure graph Ls 158.8 to 199.9||I-10|
|6||REMS team and Ashima Research reporting problems||I-12|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX J
|1||Position of Mars at the start of each of its 12 months.||J-4|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX L
|1||Changing Martian weather data from the REMS Team.||L-2|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX M
|1||Pressure changes reported for Sol 370.||M-7|
|2||Pressure changes for Sols 29 and 30||M-38|
|3||Who is ordering REMS reports temperature changes?||M-40|
|4||Weather sensors on MSL Curiosity||M-41|
|5||VL1-, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL pressure curves||M-43|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX N
|1||MSL pressure data up through its Sol 866, Ls 270 – start of the second summer at MSL||N-2|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX O
|1||MSL pressure data up to Ls 270, start of the second summer||O-1|
|2||MSL Sol 880 data changes after we highlighted problems||O-9|
|3||MSL Sol 1006 data changes after we highlighted problems||O-10|
|4||Mistakes and significant data alterations early on cast real doubt on the accuracy or honesty of MSL weather data.||O-11|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX P
|1||JPL makes changes to Sol 1,119 data that we predicted||P-12|
|2||MSL Sol 1145 data changes after we highlighted problems||P-13|
|3||MSL Sol 1160 and 1161 pressures that are record highs and above the 1,150 Pa limit of the Vaisala pressure sensor||P-14|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX S
|1||Range of high air and ground temperatures through MSL Years 1 and 2.||S-1|
|2||REMS weather reports published for MSL Sols 1234 to 1241. Note all the ground temperature highs above 0 degrees Celsius and the incredibly low ground temperature at night – down to -100 degrees Celsius on Sol 1241.||S-2|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX U
|1||UV at MSL in Gale Crater, Mars up through its sol 1021 and the beginning of its second autumn on Mars. The REMS Team/JPL dropped all low values by February, 2016||U-2|
|2A||The color for UV used on REMS reports.||U-20|
|2B||Dose rate at MSL in micrograys per day related to UV levels published on the REMS reports (see Table 2) for ~300 sols||U-20|
|3A to 3F||Relative positions of Mars and Earth when Low Ultraviolet radiations was originally reported by REMS on Mars.||U-23|
|4||Stratus clouds seen 1 hours 40 minutes before sunrise at Mars Pathfinder. If the atmosphere there is as thin as NASA claims it is doubtful that there would be light so far before sunrise.||U-24|
|5||Opportunity turned its rover eyes skyward to observe clouds drifting overhead that look like cirrus clouds on Earth.||U-26|
|6||Solar longitude (Ls) for Mars when MSL Curiosity originally measured very high UV or low UV. Again, after they read this article, they dropped all the low UV values.||U-27|
|7||UV, Latitude and Altitude||U-28|
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX V
Sol 1553 to 1554 temperature and pressure anomalies and JPL fix after we highlighted the problem with Sol 1554 pressure and max temperatures.
|2||REMS report for Sol 1575.||V-23|
|3||Figure 3 - The 35 Pa pressure drop and warm low temperatures on Sol 1605 was altered as predicted||V-24|
|4||Figure 4 – As predicted, odd data for Sol 1610 was altered – in this case totally deleted||V-25|
Figure 5 - The ground temperature drop for Sol 1640 was not revised. This marked the beginning of strangely cold temperatures that went unchanged.
|6||Figure 6 - Insane variation in night air to ground temperatures between MSL Sols 1643 and 1650||V-27|
LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX S
|1||Usually Warm Ground Temperatures Early in the Winter of MSL Year 2||S-2|
|2||High air and ground temperatures for MSL Years 1 and 2.||S-4 to S-40|
LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX U
|1||UV values for MSL Years 1 and 2 before and after JPL dropped all low UV values||U-1|
|2||Solar Longitude, Pressures and Ultraviolet Radiation for MSL During its First Two Martian Years.||U-3 toU-19|
|3||The relationships (if any) of solar longitude (Ls), lander altitude, lander latitude, day light hours each sol and UV recorded.||U-21|
|4||15 Sols with low ultraviolet radiation at Gale Crater Mars and the corresponding UV for these dates in Las Vegas, Nevada BEFORE the REMS Team and JPL dropped all low pressure data.||U-24|
Our Report is updated many times each year. The January 29, 2017 version is at the following link:
The link above is for the August 25, 2017 version of our report. Earlier versions of the report went under the titles of Martian Air Pressures Are far Higher Than NASA Asserts; Higher Than Advertised Martian Air Pressure and Mars Correct: Critique of All NASA Mars Weather with Emphasis on Pressure. This version includes a detailed analysis of 1,794 sols (over two Martian yea) of weather data for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover.
For a quick overview of the report, click PowerPoint version our Basic Report at MARS CORRECT? MARS IS WET! This was uploaded on August 27, 2017.
ANNEXES (with links) AND APPENDICES (Updated 12/9/2016)
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE BASIC REPORT
TABLES IN THE BASIC REPORT
OTHER ARTICLES ON THE MARSCORRECT.COM WEBSITE
Short Name with Link
Full Name of Article
Description of the Article
|Spherical life on Mars?|| |
Photos from MSL sols 1185, 1189 and 1203 might show lifeforms.
|Mars Correct? Mars is Wet! PowerPoint Version of our Basic Report for MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA. Uploaded May 12, 2017. || |
61-slide summary of 6+ year of research indicating that air pressure in Mars is about 84 times higher than NASA asserts. This show includes the September 28, 2015 NASA announcement of running water found at many places on Mars.
Basic Report for MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA
Uploaded May 12, 2017
Basic Report for MARS CORRECT: Critique of All NASA Mars Weather Data
152-page summary of 8 years of research indicating that air pressure in Mars is about 85 times higher than NASA asserts and discussing serious problems with all other Mars weather data. It includes new findings about running water on Mars.
|July 20, 2015 Barry Roffman radio interview about Mars.||I was interviewed again about Mars on the the John Moore Show. The interviewer was Tim Spencer. The interview starts about about 1 hour 11 minutes into the 2+ hour show at http://www.thejohnmooreshow.com/.|
|RUNNING WATER FOUND AT MANY PLACES ON MARS||Running water is associated with recurring slope lineae (RSL) and perchlorates.|
April 30, 2013 Barry Roffman radio interview about Mars.
The link to a radio interview that I gave about Mars on April 30, 2013 is as follows: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/curtner-and-kerr/2013/05/01/barry-roffman-with-larry-taylor-mars-exposed
Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Annexes (With Links) And Appendices
Mars Correct: Critique Of All Nasa Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures In The Basic Report
Ashima Research Concedes to Roffman Critiques
Ashima Concession For Posting Incorrect Data For The First 268 Sols And The Roffman Response To It:
REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports
Tables 1 & 2 summarize the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) data. Flaws will be discussed in conjunction with them. Table 1 shows the history of 682 sols of weather at MSL with emphasis on major changes (likely political in nature).
REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports
REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 670 and forward to Sol 866.
MSL Year 2 Weather Record from Ls 270 (summer) to Ls 0 (360).
REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 865 to Sol 1020.
MSL Year 2 Weather Record from Ls 0 (fall) to Ls 90.
|REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 1,019 onward.|
Orignal REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Record
REMS Team/JPL Give Us a Moving Target for Mars Weather Data.
Original REMS Mars Science Laboratory Summer Weather Record
Original REMS MSL Summer Weather Record
Analysis of MSL Water in Soil Announcement
There is a lot of water just under the surface of Mars - maybe too much for the pressure accepted by NASA.
How JPL fudges pressure data to keep it on expected curve.
Close observation of original and revised MSL pressure data shows that JPL will not publish pressures more than 7 Pascals off the pressure expected curve.
MSL Temperature Change From 1.5 Meters AGL to the Ground
MSL Temperature change from .5 meters above the ground to the ground.
Relative Humidity at Curiosity, Gale Crater, Mars
Are these numbers all wet? Statements about relative humidity do not jive with the record
Martian Sky Color Controversy
Disinformation about Martian sky color apparently started with an order by NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher when Viking 1 touched down.
Tavis Pressure Sensor Suspicions.
ANNEX G To MARS CORRECT: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results. Tavis CADS are found here.
Vaisala Sensors used on Phoenix & MSL
Issues raised by the Finnish Meteorological Institute show reasons to be concerned that pressures reported are false.
Pressures Measured by Mars Pathfinder
Pathfinder Data is Best Compared to Viking 1 Data
MSL Curiosity Wind Booms and Disinformation
Pathfinder Data is Best Compared to Viking 1 Data
Data Debate with Professor Ingersoll of CalTech/JPL
Why there is "No Sale" on a NASA Mars expert's request that this study be terminated.
Mars Daylight Math: Roffman vs. NASA (REMS Team & Ashima)
How can we trust scientists who publish faulty data for so long even after we have pointed out obvious errors?
Curiosity and Ancient Life on Mars
The red color of Mars points at least to a past with plenty of oxygen
Altitudes for Mars landers with weather instruments
The higher the landing site, the less the pressure.
Mars Landing Sites
Attempted Martian landings and Martian weather data.
Was there a nuclear blast on Mars?
Disinformation requires a cause - something worth hiding from a public that might panic or have its values altered. Dr. Brandenberg's discovery may point to reason for a cover up.
Aldrin's claim of a monolith on Martian moon Phobos
Seeing is not always believing when photos are involved. Does Aldrin know more than what these pictures show?
Ashima/MIT Mars General Circulation Model Critique
The Mars General Circulation Model by Ashima/MIT is flawed as were the MSL Mars weather reports posted by Ashima. Research.
How NASA altered high temperatures for MSL
After NASA reported that temperatures were higher than expected at Gale Crater on Mars, they simply went back and dropped the temperatures reported.
|MSL Sol 370, 1160 and 1161 histories.||MSL Sol 370, 1160 and 1161 pressure changes by JPL and Ashima Research.|| |
After the REMS Team posting a record high average pressure of 1149 Pa (11.49 mbar) for Sol 370, and having our team question it (MSL could not measure over 1150 Pa), REMS pulled it down and put up a likey bogus false pressure of 865 Pa (8.65 mbar). Ashima Research still shows the higher pressure. REMS repeated this behavior for Sols 1160 and 1161.
Proof Viking Pressure Sensors Failed.
Evidence is presented to show that clogged dust filters on Vikings 1 and 2 kept the Tavis Pressure sensors from measuring ambient air pressure on Mars.
2012 Mars Dust Storm Nonsense
Analysis put out by JPL about a 2012 regional dust storm that never reached MSL or Opportunity was plainly unfounded utter nonsense.
Critique of JPL Press Conference of 15 November 2012
JPL made several unwarranted assertions about dust devils seen at MSL during this conference. The wind data they quoted was later withdrawn by them due to a wind instrument on Boom 1 that broke on landing. Navigating
Navigating Mars: Altitude and Longitude Issues
The rules for establishing altitude and longitude have both changed. This article will attempt to clarify the issues involved. Obviously altitudes will greatly affect pressures.
Phobos Grunt Failure, a Horrible Failure, But Not a Surprise.
The Russians failed to reach the Martian moon Phobos (again) with a mission launched in 2011. The final Russian failure analysis is reviewed, as is earlier speculation about Phobos.
Sand movement and Martian air pressure
Winds measured on Mars are insufficient to move sand dunes or fill in Rover tracks if we accepted NASA's low air pressure claims. That sand dunes do move on Mars is terrific proof that NASA is publishing false air pressure.
Mystery of a moving rock on Mars solved?
In January 2014 a rock seemed to move to get into the view of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Was it actually kicked up by an Opportunity wheel, or did something else occur?
MSL finds Methane and chlorobenzene at Gale Crater.
JPL press conference of December 16, 2014 and related data, mostly from the book Mars Up Close by Marc Kaufman.
Does the Gillespie Lake rock outcrop point to past life on Mars?
Oxygen and Trees on Mars?
Mysterious plumes above the surface of Mars have scientists stumped.
Clouds have been spotted up to 155 above Mars. The previous record was 60 miles up.
|While we believe that it's not as strong a case as that for higher than advertised Martian air pressure, there are reasons to question the accepted levels of oxygen on Mars. |
|Part 1 - Gilbert Levin - the Man Who Found Life on Mars||The only real opposition to Levin's claim to have found life at Viking 1 and Viking 2 landing sites (with his labeled release experiment) was based on the failure to finding organic chemicals. But that failure was flawed, and now we know there are organic chemicals on Mars.|
|Part 2 - Gilbert Levin - the Man Who Found Life on Mars - Historical overview. |
|Why we believe that JPL did a poor job of laying out the case for brine at Gale Crater.|
|Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2.|
|Photos and comments about the strange lights seen on Ceres.||A look at the possible causes of strange lights coming from a crater on Ceres.||Causes considered include ice, geysers, volcanoes, salt, aliens, and diamonds formed by asteroid impact. This updated article shows the lights in September, 2015 from an altitude of 915 miles. |
|Factors affecting UV levels at MSL in Gale Crater, Mars |
|UV varies from Very high down to low.||Factors considered include solar longitude (Ls), distance from the sun, latitude, altitude (and air density) opacity, and error.|
|High temperatures for MSL Years 1 and 2.||Comparison of high air and ground temperatures at MSL.|
|Scale heights and Mars pressure transducer errors||Scale heights are key to solving the mystery of Mars.|