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This page updated on 7/26/2017



       The text on the following pages is political in nature. It does not in way represent the beliefs of my son, David. Frankly, he would prefer me to delete it entirely from the report. David is comfortable living in a conservative academic community, whereas I was, for much of my life, a military man who wrote war plans.  He enjoys addressing mathematical pieces of a puzzle, whereas I am trained to look for indications and warnings (I&W) for threats, and then to tie them together to form a coherent threat assessment. In this case the threat that I see has implications of sufficient magnitude to national and global security to justify, if not mandate, taking obvious personal risks required to state my full opinion.  

What Difference Could All This Possibly Make?  

       This question is reminiscent of then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s remarks about the attack against U.S. Embassy personnel in Benghazi, Libya. But, in reference to Martian air pressure, it was asked of me by a neighbor here in Cape Canaveral. He is an aerospace engineer whose job was to install instrumentation on the Orion spacecraft. It’s supposed to eventually help take astronauts to Mars, but SpaceX may get there first – and this threat might kill funding for the Space Launch System (SLS) that is required to take Orion there.  

       The engineer was aware that I have an additional web site besides The other site deals with religion, politics, and an allegedly predictive computer code that exists in the first five books of the Bible. My neighbor wanted to know if there was a link between my research about Mars and my work on the so-called Torah Code (also known as the Bible Code).  Was I trying to use one set of data to support the other?

       I assured him that when I investigate a controversial topic my “bible” is the scientific method, although when it comes to Mars or any government-sponsored or generated data I do also look at the people who produce or release it. With Mars this is an important part of obtaining the truth. That’s because it seems like a rule that all information published about Mars must be released by NASA public relations men (Guy Webster or Dwayne Brown) or their staff. So the public only knows about lander-derived data after the Government lets us know what it wants us to know.

       Over the past eight years of research two primary conclusions can be drawn from my communications with Webster: (1) By his own words, he is not a meteorologist or an expert scientist qualified to discuss Martian meteorology, and (2) All promises that he has given to me to get answers from the meteorology experts have gone unfulfilled with the exception of a question about how ground temperature data could, in May, 2013, suddenly start flowing from Boom 1. It was damaged on landing back on August 6, 2012.

       What this means is that no questioning of data can be addressed without going through a public affairs office. This may automatically imply political coloring of data released to (or hidden from) the public. Almost certainly there was a political agenda involved when NASA Director Dr. James Fletcher ordered color monitors at JPL to be manually tuned away from the blue sky that they were originally showing for Viking 1 to a reddish sky. Every picture from that point in 1976 until 2012 showed a wrong sky color.

       Only with MSL, 36 years after Viking 1, when they took the dust cap off a camera lens (see Figure 42E), did we see the true sky color (see Figure 73 below).  Likewise we had to wait until 2011 for NASA to tell us that their original conclusion that there were no organic chemicals at Viking 1 and 2 was incorrect.89In 2013 we also learned that there are two pints of water in every cubic foot of soil at Gale Crater, and likely everywhere else on Mars.52

       There are also issues with the timing of the announcement about running water on Mars. NASA knew about RSL in 2011. See Seasonal Flows On Warm Martian Slopes published in Science on 5 August 2011.113 Alfred McEwen - the Principal Investigator for HIRISE, at the University of Arizona in Tucson and Luju Ojha, a PhD Candidate at the Georgia Institute of Technology were on the list of authors then. While it’s reasonable to argue that the big announcement had to wait until Ojhu provided the link between RSL and perchlorates, many skeptics want to know if it was a coincidence that such a spectacular announcement on September 28, 2015 came only four days before the release of the movie THE MARTIAN. Indeed, the director of this $175,000,000 film, Ridley Scott, states that NASA timed its release to help the film.

       A word about Lujendra (Luju): This guy (likely with a PhD now) is to be congratulated, even if NASA is milking his work for financial or political purposes.  While NASA listed him as a Ph.D. candidate from the Georgia Institute of Technology, in checking our copy of the National Geographic book MARS UP CLOSE (Marc Kaufman, August 5, 2014), we see that on page 109 it states that, “The seasonal streaks (officially known as recurring slope lineae, or RSLs) were first identified by a University of Arizona student, Nepali undergraduate Lujendra Ojhu, who was studying a crater over time. His professor, HIRISE principal investigator Alfred McEwen, took his research, and together they published a paper in Science that broke the news." At the time of publication for MARS UP CLOSE in 2014, we read that "Since that discovery more than 25 sites with streaks have been photographed (and in winter without streaks), and some of the sites have more than 1,000 flows.” McEwen states, "We were actually taking images from these sites for 4 years before someone did the work to find that the slopes had these features in the warmer times and none when it was colder.” Sadly, at this rate many generations will pass away before we are given a complete portrait of the truth.

       So what difference does it all make? The human race is suffering from a massive case of amnesia. Setting aide religious claims about the age of mankind, a quick on-line search for the time when homo-sapiens first arose indicates a time at least 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. Yet we know very little about our ancestors from before about 5,000 years ago, and there is even controversy about the age of the Sphinx in Egypt.98

       Is there a link between our ancestors and any civilization that might have existed on the Red Planet? When the Viking 1 Orbiter observed Mars on July 25, 1976 it sent us the famous image of what looked like a face at Cydonia on a 2 km mesa situated at 40.75° North latitude and 9.46° West longitude.99 At the time, Viking chief scientist Gerry Soffen dismissed the "Face on Mars" in image 035A72100as a "trick of light and shadow".101, 102 However, a second image, 070A13, also shows the "face", and it was acquired 35 Viking orbits later at a different sun-angle from the 035A72 image. This latter discovery was made independently by Vincent DiPietro and Gregory Molenaar, two computer engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. DiPietro and Molenaar discovered the two misfiled images, Viking frames 035A72 and 070A13, while searching through NASA archives.103 Images taken decades later did not back the original ones, and belief of an alien origin of the face-like mesa has been used to mock and dismiss the work of scientists who backed what was first seen.

       Analysis of the face is beyond the scope of this work, but it is tempting to match what looks like disinformation about Martian air pressure to Cydonia. Why would the Government hide the truth about Mars? One only has to look at the panic that ensued when Orson Wells gave his War of the Worlds radio broadcast in 1938. Combine that with reports of radioactive isotopes found on Mars that match what is seen at nuclear detonations on Earth (Brandenburg, 2011)104 and it’s easy to understand why the Governments might want to keep the public from knowing the truth about Mars. While Brandenburg’s paper, Evidence for a Large, Natural, Paleo-Nuclear Reactor on Mars only discusses a natural cause for an ancient nuclear explosion there, his 2011 book, Life and Death on Mars, The New Mars Synthesis, on page 179 forwards the idea of an airburst caused by a great intelligence with great malice.


            Do I believe Brandenburg? It’s not important. Do I believe in the literal word of the Torah? My knee-jerk response is that this is also not important because I try to keep my personal beliefs out of my Mars research (however the most common readers of my articles about the Torah Code have NASA IP addresses). There are intriguing hints in the Bible about contact between someone not human (Nephilim/giants) and the daughters of man in Genesis 6:4. These ideas can be looked at as distractions, but the reality is this. Martian weather does not match NASA-backed low Martian air pressure. Both science and religion stress the importance of our past and our fate in the future.  

It’s generally accepted in science that Mars was once a warmer, wetter world, with oceans. If the air pressure remains high, there is still the question of what happened to its seas. Indeed, to have a sea suddenly appear there today all that would be necessary would be to melt the fresh water sea frozen in Utopia Planitia.115

If Mars had life, did it all die, or merely move underground? Did bacteria ever travel from Mars to Earth after an asteroid impact there? Did that play a role in our evolution? Did something much higher up the evolutionary scale make it from there to here, and was it linked to Cydonia or the Bible’s Nephilim? Did they influence or color any of mankind’s religious experiences or doctrines? These are questions of fundamental importance. The human race often uses religious doctrine to justify wars. However, the Government might worry that data supporting a past not generally in line with the Bible would lead to anarchy and chaos.

         Reality is that disclosure would have different effects among different populations. In the Muslim world there might be less of a tendency for young men to shout “Allahu Akbar” when committing suicide bombings with the promise of 72 virgins in heaven as a proper reward. But in the West there might be an increase in crime because some might interpret disclosure to imply that the Ten Commandments (or Seven Precepts of Noah) are not dictated by any Higher Authority.          

       Despite the concerns just given, there is already so much chaos in the world today that is related to religious beliefs that in the long run we should not allow any Government to have a free pass when it comes to setting or maintaining common beliefs. Yes, there may be some cultural shock at first. But obviously when it comes to religious differences, we cannot all be right.

       While I am a Modern Orthodox Jew, I will not tell my readers which religion (if any) to believe. Orthodox Judaism does not seek converts, and often even discourages them, preferring to simply recommend that non-Jews follow the general laws of morality found in the Seven Precepts of Noah (none of which requires belief in God). I will conclude by stating this: With respect to Mars, there is an ultimate truth out there. We have seen NASA slowly reverse itself many times about Mars, but the rate of change and funding of manned missions to Mars is inadequate.

       I last delivered a presentation to the International Mars Society Convention in 2011. I was going to speak again in 2014, however the Mars Society president, Dr. Robert Zubrin, said that I would not be allowed more than the standard (inadequate) 30 minutes. Previously he told me that he could not take a position about our findings because he isn’t a meteorologist. Clearly he is worried about his relations with NASA. It takes a lot of courage to say that “the Emperor has no clothes.” On Martian air pressure, the Emperor of NASA has no clothes. But if Zubrin were to understand and agree to the pressure findings in this report it might make it harder for him to recruit speakers from NASA to his conventions.

       Dr. Zubrin isn’t always wrong. The first time that I met him was at the Mars Society Convention in Dayton, Ohio in 2010. There he correctly summed up what will be needed for any American-only manned mission to Mars carried out by NASA.  He pointed to President Kennedy’s May 25, 1961 call to land on the moon before the end of the decade. The speech was made early in Kennedy’s administration. We landed on the moon eight years later on July 20, 1969.

       Zubrin’s point was that for a successful manned Mars landing, the commitment to go must be made early in a president’s first term with the landing made by the end of a president’s second term. Policies like Obama’s (with a targeted manned landing in the 2030s) involve multiple presidential and congressional elections. This Zubrin sees as the kiss of death. Funding approved by one set of politicians is likely to be overruled by the next. Zubrin’s point was reinforced again on July 22, 2014. It was then announced by the Government Accountability Office that the Space Launch System (SLS), scheduled for its first test flight in 2017, had a 90% chance of not meeting that date. The agency’s funding plan for the rocket was apparently $400 million less than what was actually needed to launch by 2017.104 In fact, in 2015 the launch date was put back to 2018. One of our friends who works at NASA Glenn has told us that he is considering a transfer elsewhere because he feels his work on the SLS will not be funded.

       Whether we try to understand our past or give our species an insurance policy against extinction caused by a future asteroid impact, with our soaring population Mars is a wise investment in opening another home.  The Mars One effort to send people on a one-way mission to the Red Planet netted over 200,000 applicants.108 On June 2, 2016 Elon Musk also announced own his plans to launch a human mission to Mars by as early as 2024, with a landing in 2025.114

        Let’s return to the Orion engineer’s question. “What difference could (all the findings of this report) possibly make?  If we are right, and NASA has understated Martian air pressure by two orders of magnitude because of inadequately designed pressure transducer dust filters, then Martian wind storms would be far more hazardous than imagined. However higher pressure, which may explain why MSL discovered two pints of water in every cubic foot of soil, and running water at RSL also simplify finding vital resources for life support.

       We have demonstrated (and hopefully proven) that Mars has higher pressure than NASA advertises. There is abundant evidence for our conclusion. However, if what we are told is due to deliberate disinformation rather than human error, then Mars One and, in particular, SpaceX need to plan on physically defending their missions from actions that might be ordered by those who are intent on keeping the truth about Mars from being known. Alternately, it's time for our citizens to elect and employ honest leaders who can help us to deal with reality. Here there is reason to hope that the United States has made a fortunate choice.

       On January 20, 2015 President Trump assumed power. Since then he has repeatedly stated his enthusiasm about sending American to Mars. In particular, on April 24, 2017 he called the International Space Station and had the following conversation with Astronaut Peggy Whitson:

TRUMP: “Tell me: Mars, what do you see a timing for actually sending humans to Mars? Is there a schedule and when would you see that happening?”

WHITSON: “Well, I think as your bill directed, it'll be approximately in the 2030s. As I mentioned, we actually are building hardware to test the new heavy launch vehicle, and this vehicle will take us further than we've ever been away from this planet.

“So, unfortunately space flight takes a lot of time and money so getting there will require some international cooperation to get the — it to be a planet-wide approach in order to make it successful just because it is a very expensive endeavor. But it is so worthwhile doing.”

TRUMP: “Well, we want to try and do it during my first term or, at worst, during my second term, so we'll have to speed that up a little bit, okay?”

WHITSON: “We'll do our best.”

       I was a donor to the Trump campaign, and I’ve applied to be science advisor on his staff. My application (numbered P-0007502) to the White House also included a list of over 500 IP addresses of frequent readers from NASA, the European Space Agency, Roscosmos (the Russian Space Agency) and the Kremlin.

       Whoever lands on Mars first, if not part of an international expedition, will likely claim the planet along with all its mineral wealth for their nation or company. President Trump is a man who understands money, but who also has an unlimited sense of patriotism. His campaign slogan was “Make America Great Again.” To do that he is going to have to Make America’s Space Program Great Again too. To help do that he must convince a hostile Congress that Mars is worth the money. That’s a hard sell if the air pressure on Mars averages just 6.1 mbar. But it that number is readjusted up to 511 mbar with pressure in many areas near to or above average pressure on Earth, then Mars is a prize well worth competing with others to own.