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Ultraviolet Radiation, Schiaparelli Mars Lander Crash, Conclusions, Recommendations, and Acknowledgements (Updated 7/25/2017)


        On February 20, 2016 it appeared that for the 1,256 sols accounted for the µv values recorded (or missing) indicate the following:




% of SOLS

EXTREMELY HIGH (µv value 5)



VERY HIGH (µv value 4)

192 (only 17 were in Year 2)


HIGH (µv value 3)



MEDIUM (µv value 2)



LOW (µv value 1)






Average      µv value = 2.733906 for 1,167 sols; had no data)



Table 22: Ultraviolet radiation reported through 1,256 sols at MSL. 

However we were aware that our exact count of medium and high µv values might have been slightly off because the REMS reports relied primarily on a color code to denote µv level, and the colors they chose for medium and high values were almost identical. As a backup, it was possible to put a cursor on the symbol for each sol. Eventually a printed value would appear that would make the level clear, but this was a very time consuming process that I put off until I found on February 22, 2016 that the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) - was on my web site (again) reading a previous version of this report (which included Table 22). The IP address was The FMI invented the problematic pressure sensor used on Phoenix and MSL. They also form part of the REMS Team that is responsible for all the problematic weather reports from Gale Crater on Mars. So I decided to check every medium and high µv report. The May 14, 2016 updated results are shown below in Table 23.


       TABLE 23

Figures below are from the REMS Team after they visited our sites and revised their data again. This Table shows µv for 1,328 MSL sols.



% of SOLS


(µv value 5)



VERY HIGH    (µv value 4)



HIGH              (µv value 3)




(µv value 2)




(µv value 1)






Average µv value = 2.753659 (for 1,230 sols (108 had no data).



Table 23: REMS-revised µv radiation reported through 1,328 sols after all 19 original low µv values were dropped.     


        We noted on 2/22/2016 that after a visit to our sites by the FMI which, working for REMS and NASA bears responsibility for all MSL weather instruments, all 19 low µv values were altered to N/A or medium. All low µv values after 2/22//2016 were also altered.  As we wrote this there were new low µv values posted by the REMS Team for Sols 1,610 and 1,611. We noted them on at and have a print-screen of Sol 1,610 at Within three days of posting the low values JPL again altered them both (to Not Available).

       The µv results shown on Tables 22 and 23 were a bit surprising. If we use a number of 5 to represent a µv index of extremely high, 4 for very high, 3 for high, 2 for medium, and 1 for low, then (ignoring 91 sols where there was no data on Table 22, the average µv index was only about 2.7334 – between medium and high. For Table 23 where there was no data for 108 sols, the average µv index was only about 2.753659. 

       While Viking 1, Viking 2 and MSL high pressure air measurements were close to perihelion (closest approach to the sun) as shown on Table 2 in Annex U ( of this report, the relationship of perihelion to UV was far less certain. Table 2 there details what the current JPL position is with respect to each sol’s Solar Longitude (Ls), pressure, and reported UV value. Before their major revision there were 4 categories given by JPL/the REMS team) for µv values found – low, moderate, high and very high. The revision only included moderate, high and very high. With respect to very high µv it was recorded on 175 sols in MSL Year 1, but only on 17 sols in MSL Year 2. In Year 3 so far there were no readings of very high for the remainder of the winter (sols 1,339 to 1,392), there were 13 such sols in the spring (sols 1,392  to 1,534), and for the summer there were 44 sols with very high µv from sols 1,534 to 1,760.

       When I did a data check on 2/22/2016 I wasn’t surprised to find that I had made the wrong color judgment for about 10 sols, and the corrections were immediately made on my website spreadsheet for µv reports at However, I was shocked to find that after I went to a great deal of trouble to graphically illustrate exactly where Mars was in its orbit around the sun when low µv was reported, all 19 incidents had been removed by the REMS Team and NASA. We believe that this action is another response to critiques seen throughout our websites. Figure 71 shows print-screen records of several low µv values before they were tossed out of what was presented to the public after all such data was massacred.

       Why are low µv values problematic for NASA? One might think that with the ultra-thin atmosphere espoused by them, and no ozone layer, ultraviolet radiation on Mars would be extremely high on at least some days. But at least up to Sol 1737 on June 25, 2017 it never was, even though NASA alleged that every single day at MSL so far has been “sunny.” Quite simply, 19 sols with low µv does not fit well with an atmosphere <1 % of Earth’s, no ozone layer, and clear sky. That NASA threw out all low µv values after they read our concerns makes their action all the more suspect, especially because they have thrown out all wind reports after our objections, changed their totally wrong sunrise and sunset times to match David Roffman’s calculations, and we document many changes made to their temperature and pressure data after we color- highlighted obvious concerns on our weather spreadsheets for MSL Years 1, 2, and 3 (see for links to all our data). As such, we are not taking down our graphics about the original low µv values posted by the REMS Team. They remain posted on our web sites and are offered again in Annex U of this report.

15.1 Solar Longitude for sols at MSL with very high and low ultraviolet radiation before NASA eliminated all low µv values.

        In the first 1,328 sols of MSL operations there were 192 sols with Very High µv. The range in solar longitude (Ls) for µv ratings was between 155 and 347, with the average Ls 251 degrees. Of interest, the Ls at perihelion, when Mars is closest to the sun, is also 251 degrees. Thus it appears that if the data is trustworthy, µv is highest at MSL Curiosity (in the southern hemisphere) when Curiosity is closest to the sun. Ls 251 is late spring in the southern hemisphere. In Year 3 the µv was high at Ls 251, but at Ls 252 it was very high.

       While µv is highest at MSL Curiosity when Curiosity is closest to the sun, it doesn’t follow that before data revisions the lowest µv was when Mars was at aphelion (furthest from the sun) at Ls 71 although low µv was initially reported for Ls 83 and 84. Low µv was first found on 19 sols between Ls 119 and 317 and one at Ls 3 but the fact that low µv has been claimed for all four seasons (winter - Ls 119), spring (intermittently from Ls 249 to 263), summer (intermittently from Ls 317 to 354), and fall (intermittently from Ls 3 to 84) means that the Ls did not appear to be a critical factor. See Figure 72.


Figure 71 Initial low v values reported by the REMS Team and how the reports were altered. All low v values between Sol 608 (April 22, 2014) and Sol 1200 on December 22, 2015 were obliterated by February 22, 2016. We caught this on the day that FMI visited the website. There was some elimination of low v values before this (after we highlighted them) and FMI, the REMS Team and multiple NASA IP addresses were caught reviewing our v data before the low v values were eliminated.

The data published by the REMS Team/JPL also mention opacity, but as of May 8, 2017 none of the 1,690 reports ever varied from SUNNY. There is reason to question the validity of this data. 

       Relative humidity is higher than expected in some parts of Gale Crater (see Figures 46 and 47 earlier in Section 13). There is brine underground and JPL has indicated that possible RSL have also been seen on the slopes of Mount Sharp in Gale crater (the location of the Curiosity rover), but that has not been confirmed yet. It is also not yet known if the rover would be able to reach them. But given the possibility of so much water, it seems odd that not one day at MSL has been reported to be cloudy.

       Clouds can be seen drifting by behind the Telltale wind device on Phoenix on its Sol 103, but Phoenix landed in the Martian arctic. Stratus clouds were seen 16 km above the Mars Pathfinder - see Figure 44. It landed at 19.1 degrees North which like MSL Curiosity is in the tropics).

       Clouds were seen at MER Opportunity ( It landed at 1.9462°S 354.4734°E.The MSL curiosity landed at a latitude of 4.59 degrees South. The approximate difference in latitude (4.59-1.95) is only 2.64 degrees. As each one degree difference of latitude in Mars is about 59 km, these clouds, though not at the longitude of MSL, were only 155.76 km (96.7847769 miles) north of Curiosity's latitude. 


       The enigma of dust devils on a planet with extremely low air pressure first led to this investigation into whether or not the public was being given correct data about Mars. At the beginning of this study in September, 2009 it was found that dust devils matched terrestrial dust devils in every respect except absolute and relative pressure excursions.

       What was a bigger surprise was that a pattern of sloppy Martian weather data presentation and inadequate weather sensor funding was found across the board for all landers. With respect to data, some academics may argue that all that matters is that the “experts” have or can locate the right data, and that what the public sees is not important. Such an attitude is in direct conflict with how science is normally conducted.

       In fact, I asked an astronomy professor to obtain weather data for the Phoenix lander from the Planetary Data System (PDS). He did, and sent us an enormous file. A sample of it is posted at But, more than a year after he obtained it for us, the data remains problematic because there are four temperature columns with data for 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 meter elevations. The problem is that there were only three temperature sensors on Phoenix, with locations at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 meter above the lander (Taylor et al 2008).69 Further, the 2 meter temperatures (on a daily cyclic basis) were found to be a good bit higher than the 1.5 meter readings. For example, at the first sample data line on the link above temperatures are 242.8775K at 0.5 m, 238.7638K at 1 m, 239.8803 at 1.5 m and then up to 257.6K at 2 m, an increase of  17.7197K (about 31.9 degrees Fahrenheit) in a half meter (19.685 inches). The professor was not able to procure clarification from NASA.

       At a minimum, poor data management leads to false information being taught in our science classrooms, and it serves as a false basis for public support of tax-funded space programs. Worse, it leads to distrust of our Government and speculation about why our Government appears to be covering up the truth about Mars.

       Traditional wisdom is that we could not have had so many successes on Mars if we did not understand the pressure there.  But there were many failures right up through and including ExMars 2016, some unexplained, and only five successful landers that attempted to measure in situ pressure, all with questionable dust filter capabilities and other design problems. Problems for the traditional view include the facts that

  • During Viking 1 and 2 during Year 1, pressures varied closely with Gay-Lussac/ Amonton’s Law-based predictions for a gas trapped in a closed container. This may imply that the Tavis transducers employed measured the pressure of air caught behind dust clots rather than ambient air pressure outside the lander. The same was true for Phoenix and for MSL. Phoenix had no RTG heater, but it did have battery operated heaters. One of them operated the meteorological suite of instruments. It was thought that electronics that operate these instruments should generate enough heat on their own to keep most of them running. This sounds like there was no need to pump heat into the pressure transducer. If so, there may indeed have been slow cooling of the air trapped behind the clogged dust filter that, combined with a slowly dying battery and no timed heat pump, led to no pressure spikes seen like those of Vikings and MSL. Thus the pressure recorded simply went down at a steady rate as was shown earlier in Figure 12A (Section 2.4). 

         Perhaps conveniently, Phoenix pressure readings (which appear to closely follow the pressure readings of Viking 2 and MSL shown on Figure 21B in Section 4) were cut off at Ls 151.5º of the Martian orbit. This is about when Viking 1, Viking 2 and MSL all recorded minimum pressure. Ls 149.088º was the average Ls of their minimum pressure (see Table 7 for Section 4.1). For Pathfinder the battery was used to heat the probe's electronics to slightly above the expected nighttime temperatures on Mars.95  

Had the battery not been turned off then we might have soon seen the expected rise in pressure if there was reason for Phoenix to continue following the VL-2 curve.

  • In Section 2.6.1 we saw that accuracy of the Viking pressure readings was questionable where pressure changes asserted were under .08 mbar because surface pressure measurements were limited by digitization to ≈ 0.088 mbar. Data was especially suspicious where pressures remained stuck for days even though huge hourly temperature changes were being recorded (see Annex C at The longest such period was between sols 700.5 and 706.46, essentially six full Martian days when the temperature varied from -23.41° C to -83.17° C, a difference of 59.18°C (106.524°F). Pressures that are stuck over such wide variations of temperature almost certainly mean that the pressure sensors were not functioning correctly. However, when pressures were not stuck, they tended to vary strongly with what would be expected of gas trapped behind a dust clot with the gas being subjected to heating by the RTG.
  •   As was noted in Section 2.6.2, highly consistent pressure increases in the mornings at 0730, afternoon at 1630 and nights at 2330 Local True Solar Time at Vikings 1 and 2 suggest that the pressure sensors were reacting to the RTG heaters or scheduled internal events that generated heat rather than ambient pressures.  A similar pattern was seen for limited MSL data that was released.
  • Consistent with past actions and as we predicted, the 1,177 Pa, 1,200 Pa and 1154 Pa pressures for sols 1,160 and 1,161 and 1301 were revised down by JPL (to 899, 898 and 752 Pa). They were way above the curve (and above the 1150 Pa maximum pressure rating of the pressure sensor on MSL) but still too low to explain the weather. When looking at MSL pressures up through Sol 1,690 on May 8, 2017, we note that the maximum (revised) pressure at MSL for both MSL Year 1 and 2 was 925 Pa (Ls 252 to 253 in Year 1 and again at Ls 257 in Year 2). There was a spike that peaked at 908 Pa at Ls 56 in late fall. The 908 Pa figure is 98.16% of the 925 Pa late spring spike. The increase in pressure then would NOT be driven by frozen carbon dioxide at the southern ice cap returning to the atmosphere as gas, and the northern ice is largely or completely water ice - not enough to produce the 908 Pa pressure at Ls 56.
  • We made a check in Annex E (, of what the percent differences were between measured and predicted pressures provided for each time-bin (25 per Martian day/sol between Viking 1 sols 200 and 350). It showed that the percent differences for the period of greatest interest (time-bins 0.3 and 0.34) was only 2.67%.
  • Annex F (

02013.pdf) demonstrates that there was great repeatability in the times each Martian day for when the percent difference between measured and predicted pressures was under 2%.  The data indicates that when heaters were expected to come on, pressure predictions based on Gay-Lussac/Amonton’s Law for a gas being heated in a confined space (behind the dust clots) were quite accurate.  But when the heaters were likely to be off, the accuracy of Gay-Lussac/Amonton’s Law prediction fell.  How much it fell was likely related to how effective insulation was on the Vikings.

  • Mariner 4, 6, and 7 only provided radio occultation points for six places on Mars. NASA History Office document SP-4212 On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet 1958-1978 reported occultation pressures for Mariner 6 and 7 (Mariner 69's) at the surface of Mars that ranged from 4 to 20 millibars, and it implied 80 millibars for the Mariner 4 96
  • No Viking ever included instruments that could measure pressures over 18 mbar, Phoenix could not measure over 12 mbar, MPF was restricted to 10 mbar on the surface, and MSL was held to 11.5 mbar. The mean pressure recorded for MSL sol 370 was 11.49 mbar (at least until we challenged it and JPL revised it). The original pressure indicates that for much or most of that day the actual pressure was almost certainly above the maximum pressure that the Vaisala pressure transducer could measure. The REMS Team published 1,177 Pa and 1,200 Pa pressures for sols 1,160 and 1,161, but after over two months of our questioning these pressures on our web sites, JPL backed off and revised the pressures to 899 and 898 Pa. See Figure 14E. They likewise backed off a 1154 Pa pressure for sol 1301 and changed it to 752 Pa. See Figure 14F.

There were several Tavis sensors with widely different pressure sensitivity ranges. Similar looking and sized Tavis transducers could measure up to 0.1 psia (6.9 mbar), 0.174 psia limit (12 mbar), 0.2 psia (13.79 mbar), 0.26 psia (17.9 mbar), 0.36 psia (24.82 mbar), or 15 psia (1,034 mbar). Given their outward similarity and the enigma of Martian weather, the possible installation of the wrong Tavis sensor cannot be overlooked. For detailed information about Tavis transducers and their performance tests, see Annex G (

  • An example of simple mistakes made by Mars “experts” can be seen by examining pressures reported by the REMS Team for MSL. See Figure 17A. In fact, for at least the first eight months after MSL landed, there were many obvious errors in daily reports issued by the REMS Team and the associated Ashima Research Company. These mistakes by the REMS Team included confusion between hPa and Pa pressure units, the wrong Martian month, and constant wind at 2 m/s from the east when in fact, with a broken meteorological boom, there was no accurate wind information available. There was also a failure to include relative humidity in any daily weather reports. Until May, 2013 with Ashima Research there were daily reports with sunrise stuck at 6 AM and sunset stuck at 5 PM local Martian time. The constant 13 hours of night and 11 hours of daylight, whether in late winter or early spring was impossible. In fact, at MSL – just south of the equator - there is never even a single day that has only 11 hours of daylight. Ashima showed that experts are capable of huge mistakes, however in May, 2013 they finally fixed their times, essentially matching day length calculations that we made. In July 2013 these corrected times were included on revised REMS daily reports. We don’t know if it was due to our incessant critiques of their work, but by 2016 Ashima removed its web site from the Internet rendering all its weather data (except what we captured by print screens and present in this Report) no longer available to the public.
  • Due to ITAR, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI, which designed the pressure sensor used on Phoenix and MSL) did not have access to critical information required to both construct the sensor and interpret its results. This caused calibration problems. See Section 2.4.1.
  • The tiny Vaisala dust filter on Phoenix did not perform in a manner that FMI could understand. The REMS reports provide reason to believe that this remains true for the essentially identical sensor used on MSL (see Figure 11A at
  • Diurnal pressure fluctuation maximum and minimum pressure times seen by Tavis pressure transducers on Vikings and Pathfinder did not match times for these events recorded by the Vaisala (FMI) transducer on Phoenix. However as of the date of this report the REMS Team has only released hourly pressures for Sols 9.5 to 13, and hourly temperatures for Sol 10 to 11.5.
  • The $37,000,000 meteorological package used on Phoenix did not include an anemometer to accurately measure wind speed – this after it was known that Pathfinder could not measure wind speed due to calibration problems. A misunderstanding of pressure conditions might have contributed to the calibration failure. See Annex H at MSL was also unable to measure wind speed. This means there was a total failure to measure surface winds on Mars after Viking’s sol 1,050 (August 17, 1979) when the winds were 10.6 meters per second (23.7 mph) from a heading of 202° True.97
  • Dust storms on the surface caused dynamic pressures at 121 km to increase by a factor of 5.6. This has not been correlated with pressure increases at the surface, but when opacity values increase to levels high enough to block 99% of light, pressures are likely to increase dramatically. This assertion is backed by a dust storm that turned day to night-like darkness in an Arizona Dust Storm on July 5, 2011.  Pressure at Luke Air Force Base increased during the dust storm by 6.6 mbar – more than average pressure (6.1 mbar) at areoid on Mars. See Figure 35 and Section 9.
  • Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter both encountered unexpectedly highly deceleration during aerobraking operations at Mars. Such high deceleration can only be due to a higher density atmosphere than what was anticipated at altitude. See Section 10.
  • The original Viking findings rejected life on Mars because the Vikings found no organic chemistry. This absence of organic chemistry has been overturned.89 Since then, methane has been found to be emitted from at least four sites on Mars (including detection by MSL at Gale Crater). On December 16, 2014 JPL announced that it had found methane spikes of 5.5, 7, 7 and 9 ppbv (parts per billion volume), about 10 times higher than the background methane measured earlier (0.7 +/- 0.2 ppbv (see Figure 41B). Other organic chemicals found in the Cumberland sample at Gale Crater included chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, dichloroethane, 1,2 – dichloropropane, 1,2 – dichlorobutane and 
  • Levin (1997)88 believes that the results of the labeled release life detection experiment on both Vikings backed the detection of microorganisms. If correct, this also may point to higher than assumed pressures, and the failure of Viking pressure instruments to correctly record pressure due to clogged dust filters.
  • We believe that MSL likely photographed life on Mars on its Sol 1185 to 1189 and later returned to it on Sols 1248 to 1249. This was shown on Figures 52 and 53. We are less certain that tree stump-like object seen at MSL on its Sol 1647 (see Figure 59) was what it looked like, but we note that the object seen around Sol 1185 was observed during a period of extraordinarily high winter ground temperatures highs while that seen at in the late summer at Sol 1647 was observed during of period of record cold ground temperature lows.
  • Prior to MSL which used rockets for a controlled entry, the previous 4 successful landers all were downrange by 13.4 to 27 km, but 3 landers were lost since 1999. All could have landed short. NASA has requested help with its modeling of the Martian atmosphere.77 True, Beagle 2 was eventually found after 11 years, but the record shows suspect alteration of the landing ellipse size and the full report was classified.
  • We believe that (if deliberate disinformation is not a factor) the problem of unbelievable low pressures lies with the design of pressure transducers and the failure of NASA to include a way to replace dust filters that clogged on landing.
  • NASA Ames could not replicate dust devils without jacking up winds to 11+ times greater than speeds associated with Martian dust devils.
  • HiRISE findings about bedforms, and in particular, photos of MER Spirit tracks being filled in by sand demonstrate that air must be denser than assumed. Wind tunnel tests by NASA show that 80 mph (35.76 m/s) are required to move sand at 6 mbar. No such wind velocity was reported in the 8,331 Viking 1 and 2 wind measurements that were reported upon in this report. However, if their pressure sensors were faulty then their wind speeds may have been incorrect too.
  • One might think that with the ultra-thin atmosphere espoused by NASA, and no ozone layer, ultraviolet radiation on Mars would be extremely high on at least some days. But it never was, even though NASA alleged that every single day at MSL so far has been “sunny.” On at least 19 sols up through sol 1,254 it was, in fact, originally reported as low. However, on February 22, 2016 we discovered that after NASA sites reviewed our discussion of low µv values, they removed them all. Still, if we use a number of 5 to represent a µv index of extremely high, 4 for very high, 3 for high, 2 for medium, and 1 for low, then (ignoring 108 sols where there was no data), for 1,338 sols the average µv index was about 2.75 – between medium and high.
  • Stratus clouds at altitudes up to 16 km above Mars Pathfinder (that is, clouds at 12.318 km above areoid) suggest pressures at areoid of around 511 mbar, and at the Hellas Basin above average pressures on Earth.

       REMS Team reports published between September 1 and September 5 showed pressures between 742 and 747 mbar. These pressures closely match our prediction of 767 mbar at MSL based on the height of stratus clouds above Pathfinder. Curiously, while we cannot vouch for its validity, we were contacted by a source with an IP address in Estonia. It was about a hoax broadcast in 1977, supposedly made as an April Fool’s joke, but it not released then. The film (at alleged a joint U.S.-Russian unmanned landing on Mars on May 22, 1962.  We can see some kind of probe landing slowly and there are comments (in both English and Russian) about weather conditions on Mars. We hear: Temperature 4 degrees Celsius, Wind speed: 21 km/h, Atmospheric pressure 707,7 millibars. So the temperature and wind was consistent with NASA weather reports, but they closely pressure matched our pressure findings rather than NASA’s. That, however, was not what I found to be most interesting. What caught my eye on one occasion was that the reverse IP address for my unknown Estonian friend was at the U.S. Department of Defense Network Information Center (DoDNIC). Disinformation or leak? I don’t know, but the DoDNIC is on our sites almost every day. They were probably curious to see how I would react to their bait. It’s not uncommon for me to see reader IP addresses in Russia or China with a reverse IP that takes me to the DoDNIC or to one specific U.S. military base. We don’t record military IP addresses but we do record NASA, ESA, Kremlin, Roscosmos and Chinese Space Agency IPs. As of May 11, 2017 this list has over 1,200 such readers listed – with about half in the U.S.  We take their interest as an indication that they likely agree with our findings, but are not yet cleared to publically indicate so.

  • We began documenting all REMS and Ashima Research daily weather data problems on our web site at Annex M to this report combines old and new REMS data claims. See While the REMS Team/JPL and Ashima Research (before Ashima went offline) have altered their reports to match our calculations and assertions, the major disagreement on pressure still remains as of the date of this report. We believe that NASA’s pressure figures are at least one, but more likely two orders of magnitude too low.

       Successful landings may have been despite NASA’s misunderstanding of pressure there, not because of accurate data about it.  In fact, the first successful landers (the two Vikings) were designed to land with no prior in situ pressure data. As of May 17, 2017 no probe from another nation ever landed successfully on Mars after the Viking pressure information was published and accepted by the scientific community. Acceptance of low pressure values may actually have caused some of the crashes to follow Vikings. It is unwise to ignore weather systems including running surface water that should not occur in a near vacuum. Indeed, on October 19, 2016 an ESA-Roscosmos Mars lander (Schiaparelli) crashed on Mars after its parachute jettisoned early. The investigation is ongoing at this time, but an early jettison would be consistent with a much higher air pressure than expected. As noted above, we track all NASA, Russian and ESA visitors to our webs sites (see slide 60 and 61 at for an example). The Russians and Italians are frequent guests. On the night of the crash we detected ESA and JPL visitors to my son David’s article about Dr. Prasun Desai’s challenge on Martian atmospheric models with reference to parachutes, entry descend and landing ( David then began to update the article with reference to the crash. We hope that the Europeans and Russians will use our guidance to ensure success for the ExoMars 2020 surface platform and ExoMars Rover. The rover will also include some Roscosmos built instruments. The mission operations and communications is led by ALTEC's Rover Control Centre in Italy.


       An independent review of the pressure-related data from Mars should be conducted.  As was shown with Figures 14A, B, C and D (all for Sol 370) and elsewhere as with Annexes M through Q to this Report, there is strong evidence to support suspicion that NASA alters data for political or career-enhancing reasons. At a minimum the original Viking, Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL pressure transducers should be retested for the effects of dust and cold temperatures that are more consistent with assumed values on Mars.  As ITAR restricts sharing of sensitive technology with foreign contractors, for U.S. launched Mars missions contracts with these restrictions should only be awarded to U.S. firms. However, because instruments can be flawed, and data can be manipulated, for us to really understand Mars, a manned mission must be funded.


       My son, David Alexander Roffman, and I have long debated about whether his name should appear on the cover of this work as it did on all earlier versions. Although he was critical in conducting the basic research, in the end he worried about the effects that such a direct challenge to NASA might have on his future, especially if he sought a government job. The original idea of this work was mine, and the final writing was all mine. However much of the data extraction, and mathematics and computer program assistance was done by David. I was smart enough to recognize that sunrise and sunset times published by Ashima Research were wrong. I could approximate what they should be, but I needed David to calculate exactly what they are. He also delivered two PowerPoint presentations about our findings to the International Mars Society Conventions in 2010 and 2011. In the end he wanted to be seen as a technical advisor rather than the author. His choice was an honest one, but I can’t overstate the importance of his assistance.    

       Thanks are due to Professor James E. Tillman for making much of the Viking data available to the public. He answered some of our questions; but left unanswered exactly how the rate of heat flow from radioisotope thermoelectric generators to internal components regulated – by external or internal temperature or by a timer that was set to shift as sunrise occurred later in the Martian calendar?

       Further thanks are due to David’s Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s Professors Michael Hickey, Olivero, Jason Aufdenberg, and Yongho Lee.

       For transducer data thanks are due to Henrik Kahanpää for his insight into ITAR, to appropriate Tavis and Vaisala company personnel for schematics diagrams and reports related to their sensors, to April Gage, Archivist, NASA Ames History, and to Dr. Prasun Desai at NASA.

       Finally, I appreciate JPL public relations director Guy Webster for acknowledging via a “thank you” by e-mail on May 17, 2013 that we were right about REMS Team and Ashima Research being wrong on winds, and that we were right about Martian daylight hours as was manifest by Ashima changing their reports to essentially match our Figures within a minute or two each day, with the difference being due only to Ashima’s rounding off sunrise and sunset times to the nearest minute (see Figure 17B). JPL (the REMS Team) eventually also incorporated our times into its reports. Concessions made on these two issues reinforce our belief that NASA will eventually be forced to confess that we are right about pressure too.

       Backing my belief that the truth will eventually come out is the fact that both NASA and the Kremlin visit our web sites on more than a weekly basis. We maintain logs of which IP addresses come. Those of the Kremlin can be found on-line on a web site of mine that I won’t link to here (Google it if you’re interested). Those from NASA are also maintained on an on-line log, but I don’t include full IP addresses for them because I’m not out cause problems for NASA folks. I live in Cape Canaveral in a condominium with several NASA employees as neighbors. I have advised them to not use government computers to read my work. My goal with NASA readers is simply to make them aware of the big picture so they will put pressure on bosses to reveal the truth. As for the Russians, the hope is that their success will be motivate the U.S. to establish a space race that will get us there before them.


       The text on the following pages is political in nature. It does not in way represent the beliefs of my son, David. Frankly, he would prefer me to delete it entirely from the report. David is comfortable living in a conservative academic community, whereas I was, for much of my life, a military man who wrote war plans.  He enjoys addressing mathematical pieces of a puzzle, whereas I am trained to look for indications and warnings (I&W) for threats, and then to tie them together to form a coherent threat assessment. In this case the threat that I see has implications of sufficient magnitude to national and global security to justify, if not mandate, taking obvious personal risks required to state my full opinion. 

What Difference Could All This Possibly Make?  This question is reminiscent of then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s remarks about the attack against U.S. Embassy personnel in Benghazi, Libya. But, in reference to Martian air pressure, it was asked of me by a recent neighbor here in Cape Canaveral. He is an aerospace engineer whose job was to install instrumentation on the Orion spacecraft. It’s supposed to eventually help take astronauts to Mars.

       The engineer was aware that I have an additional web site besides The other site deals with religion, politics, and an allegedly predictive computer code that exists in the first five books of the Bible. My neighbor wanted to know if there was a link between my research about Mars and my work on the so-called Torah Code (also known as the Bible Code).  Was I trying to use one set of data to support the other?

       I assured him that when I investigate a controversial topic my “bible” is the scientific method, although when it comes to Mars or any government-sponsored or generated data I do also look at the people who produce or release it. With Mars this is an important part of obtaining the truth. This is because it seems like the rule that all information published about Mars must be released by NASA public relations men (Guy Webster or Dwayne Brown) or their staff. So the public only knows about lander-derived data after the Government lets us know what it wants us to know.

       Over the past six years of research two primary conclusions can be drawn from my communications with Webster: (1) By his own words, he is not a meteorologist or an expert scientist qualified to discuss Martian meteorology, and (2) All promises that he has given to me to get answers from the meteorology experts have gone unfulfilled with the exception of a question about how ground temperature data could, in May, 2013, suddenly start flowing from Boom 1. It was damaged on landing back on August 6, 2012.

      What this means is that no questioning of data can be addressed without going through a Government public affairs office. This may automatically imply political coloring of data released to (or hidden from) the public. Almost certainly there was a political agenda involved when NASA Director Dr. James Fletcher ordered color monitors at JPL to be manually tuned away from the blue sky that they were originally showing for Viking 1 to a reddish sky. Every picture from that point in 1976 until 2012 showed the wrong sky color.

Only with MSL, 36 years after Viking 1, when they took the dust cap off a camera lens (see Figure 42E), did we see the true sky color (see Figure 57 below). Likewise we had to wait until 2011 for NASA to tell us that their original conclusion that there were no organic chemicals at Viking 1 and 2 was incorrect.89In 2013 we also learned that there are two pints of water in every cubic foot of soil at Gale Crater, and likely everywhere else on Mars.52

       There are also issues with the timings of the announcement about running water on Mars. NASA knew about RSL in 2011. See Seasonal Flows On Warm Martian Slopes published in Science on 5 August 2011.113 Alfred McEwen - the Principal Investigator for HIRISE, at the University of Arizona in Tucson and Luju Ojha, a PhD Candidate at the Georgia Institute of Technology were on the list of authors then. While it’s reasonable to argue that the big announcement had to wait until Ojhu provided the link between RSL and perchlorates, many skeptics want to know if it was a coincidence that such a spectacular announcement on September 28, 2015 came only four days before the release of the movie THE MARTIAN starring Matt Damon. Indeed, the director of this $175,000,000 film, Ridley Scott, states that NASA timed its release to help the film.       A word about Lujendra (Luju): This guy is to be congratulated, even if NASA is milking his work for financial or political purposes.  While NASA lists him as a Ph.D. candidate from the Georgia Institute of Technology, in checking our copy of the National Geographic book MARS UP CLOSE (Marc Kaufman, August 5, 2014), we see that on page 109 it states that, “The seasonal streaks (officially known as recurring slope lineae, or RSLs) were first identified by a University of Arizona student, Nepali undergraduate Lujendra Ojhu, who was studying a crater over time. His professor, HIRISE principal investigator Alfred McEwen, took his research, and together they published a paper in Science that broke the news." At the time of publication for MARS UP CLOSE in 2014, we read that "Since that discovery more than 25 sites with streaks have been photographed (and in winter without streaks), and some of the sites have more than 1,000 flows.” McEwen points out that, "We were actually taking images from these sites for four years before someone did the work to find that the slopes had these features in the warmer times and none when it was colder.

       At this rate many generations will pass away before we are given a complete portrait of the truth.

       So what difference does it all make? The human race is suffering from a massive case of amnesia. Setting aide religious claims about the age of mankind, a quick on-line search for the time when homo-sapiens first arose indicates a time at least 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. Yet we know very little about our ancestors from before about 5,000 years ago, and there is even controversy about the age of the Sphinx in Egypt (Robert Schoch, 1992).98

       Is there a link between our ancestors and any civilization that might have existed on the Red Planet? When the Viking 1 Orbiter observed Mars on July 25, 1976 it sent us the famous image of what looked like a face at Cydonia on a 2 km mesa situated at 40.75° North latitude and 9.46° West longitude.99 At the time, Viking chief scientist Gerry Soffen dismissed the "Face on Mars" in image 035A72100as a "trick of light and shadow".101, 102 However, a second image, 070A13, also shows the "face", and it was acquired 35 Viking orbits later at a different sun-angle from the 035A72 image. This latter discovery was made independently by Vincent DiPietro and Gregory Molenaar, two computer engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. DiPietro and Molenaar discovered the two misfiled images, Viking frames 035A72 and 070A13, while searching through NASA archives.103 Images taken decades later did not back the original ones, and belief of an alien origin of the face-like mesa has been used to mock and dismiss the work of scientists who backed what was first seen.

       Analysis of the face is beyond the scope of this work, but it is tempting to match what looks like disinformation about Martian air pressure to Cydonia. Why would the Government hide the truth about Mars? One only has to look at the panic that ensued when Orson Wells gave his War of the Worlds radio broadcast in 1938. Combine that with reports of radioactive isotopes found on Mars that match what is seen at nuclear detonations on Earth (Brandenburg, 2011)104 and it’s easy to understand why the Governments might want to keep the public from knowing the truth about Mars. While Brandenburg’s paper, Evidence for a Large, Natural, Paleo-Nuclear Reactor on Mars only discusses a natural cause for an ancient nuclear explosion there, his 2011 book, Life and Death on Mars, The New Mars Synthesis, on page 179 forwards the idea of an airburst caused by a great intelligence with great malice.

       Do I believe Brandenburg? It’s not important. Do I believe in the literal word of the Torah? That’s also not important to people searching for the truth, because I try to keep my personal beliefs out of my research about Mars. There are intriguing hints in the Bible about contact between someone not human (Nephilim/giants) and the daughters of man in Genesis 6:4. These ideas can be looked at as distractions, but the reality is this. Martian weather does not match NASA-backed low Martian air pressure. Both science and religion stress the importance of our past and our fate in the future.  

       It’s generally accepted in science that Mars was once a warmer, wetter world, with oceans. If the air pressure remains high, there is still the question of what happened to its seas. If Mars had life, did it all die, or merely move underground? Did bacteria ever travel from Mars to Earth after an asteroid impact there? Did that play a role in our evolution? Did something much higher up the evolutionary scale make it from there to here, and was it linked to Cydonia or the Bible’s Nephilim? Did they influence or color any of mankind’s religious experiences or doctrines? These are questions of fundamental importance. The human race often uses religious doctrine to justify wars. However, the Government might worry that data supporting a past not generally in line with the Bible would lead to anarchy and chaos.

         Reality is that disclosure would have different effects among different populations. In the Muslim world there might be less of a tendency for young men to shout “Allahu Akbar” when committing suicide bombings with the promise of 72 virgins in heaven as a proper reward. But in the West there might be an increase in crime because some might interpret disclosure to imply that the Ten Commandments (or Seven Precepts of Noah) are not dictated by any Higher Authority.        

       Despite the concerns just given, there is already so much chaos in the world today that is related to religious beliefs that in the long run we should not allow any Government to have a free pass when it comes to setting or maintaining common beliefs. Yes, there may be some cultural shock at first. But obviously when it comes to religious differences, we cannot all be right.

       While I am a Modern Orthodox Jew, I will not tell my readers which religion (if any) to believe. Orthodox Judaism does not seek converts, and often even discourages them, preferring to simply recommend that non-Jews follow the general laws of morality found in the Seven Precepts of Noah (none of which requires belief in God). I will conclude by stating this: With respect to Mars, there is an ultimate truth out there. We have seen NASA slowly reverse itself many times about Mars, but the rate of change and funding of manned missions to Mars is inadequate.

       I last delivered a presentation to the International Mars Society Convention in 2011. I was going to speak again in 2014, however the Mars Society president, Dr. Robert Zubrin, said that I would not be allowed more than the standard (inadequate) 30 minutes. Previously he told me that he could not take a position about our findings because he isn’t a meteorologist. Clearly he is worried about his relations with NASA. It takes a lot of courage to say that “the Emperor has no clothes.” On Martian air pressure, the Emperor of NASA has no clothes. But if Zubrin were to understand and agree to the pressure findings in this report it might make it harder for him to recruit speakers from NASA to his conventions.

       Dr. Zubrin isn’t always wrong. The first time that I met him was at the Mars Society Convention in Dayton, Ohio in 2010. There he correctly summed up what will be needed for any American-only manned mission to Mars carried out by NASA.  He pointed to President Kennedy’s May 25, 1961 call to land on the moon before the end of the decade. The speech was made early in Kennedy’s administration. We landed on the moon eight years later on July 20, 1969.

       Zubrin’s point was that for a successful manned Mars landing, the commitment to go must be made early in a president’s first term with the landing made by the end of a president’s second term. Policies like Obama’s (with a targeted manned landing in the 2030s) involve multiple presidential and congressional elections. This Zubrin sees as the kiss of death. Funding approved by one set of politicians is likely to be overruled by the next. Zubrin’s point was reinforced again on July 22, 2014. It was then announced by the Government Accountability Office that the Space Launch System (SLS), scheduled for its first test flight in 2017, had a 90% chance of not meeting that date. The agency’s funding plan for the rocket was apparently $400 million less than what was actually needed to launch by 2017.104 In fact, in 2015 the launch date was put back to 2018.

       What is the estimated full $12 billion cost of the SLS or the $400 million shortfall compared to what the United States spent to send men to the moon 45 years ago? In 2009, NASA presented an estimate of the Apollo program costs in 2005 dollars as roughly $170 billion. The estimate included all research and development costs; the procurement of 15 Saturn V rockets, 16 Command/Service Modules, 12 Lunar Modules, plus program support and management costs; construction expenses for facilities and their upgrading, and costs for flight operations. This was based on a Congressional Budget Office report, A Budgetary Analysis of NASA’s New Vision for Space, September 2004.106 The Space Review estimated in 2010 the cost of Apollo from 1959 to 1973 as $20.4 billion, or $109 billion in 2010 dollars, averaged over the six landings as $18 billion each.107

       Whether we try to understand our past or give our species an insurance policy against extinction caused by a future asteroid impact, with our soaring population Mars is a wise investment in opening another home.  The Mars One effort to send people on a one-way mission to the Red Planet netted over 200,000 applicants.108 On June 2, 2016 Elon Musk also announced own his plans to launch a human mission to Mars by as early as 2024, with a landing in 2025.114

       Let’s return to the Orion engineer’s question. “What difference could (all the findings of this report) possibly make?  If we are right, and NASA has understated Martian air pressure by two orders of magnitude because of inadequately designed pressure transducer dust filters, then Martian wind storms would be far more hazardous than imagined. However higher pressure, which may explain why MSL discovered two pints of water in every cubic foot of soil, and running water at RSL also simplify finding vital resources for life support.

       We have demonstrated (and hopefully proven) that Mars has higher pressure than NASA advertises. There is abundant evidence for our conclusion. However, if what we are told is due to deliberate disinformation rather than human error, then Mars One and, in particular, SpaceX need to plan on physically defending their missions from actions that might be ordered by those who are intent on keeping the truth about Mars from being known. Alternately, it's time for our citizens to elect and employ honest leaders who can help us to deal with reality.

Note on January 20, 2017: President Trump assumed power today. While it remains to be seen what he will do with our space program, my overall impression is that he is the kind of leader that I imagined when I wrote the above about who we should elect. I have worked hard to help get him elected, and I have donated money toward that cause.  However I would be surprised to learn that he knows just how wrong, and in some cases, corrupt certain elements our space program have become.  So what I am going to do about it? I’ve already taken the first step.  On November 10, 2016 about a half hour after  a web site opened up at for people to apply for White House staff positions, I applied for a job as a science advisor.

       Who did I list for a reference? I included a constant reader of our web sites who is based at Fort Huachuca in Arizona. It’s an Army Intelligence Base. Since then constant (near daily) monitoring of our sites has largely shifted to two other bases and one NASA site. My point is that now that President Obama has been relegated to the history books, if there are military leaders (including a possible fan at the JCS level) who want to either tell the public the truth or help ensure that President Trump is well advised, they would do well to help ensure that I come out of retirement to move onto his staff.

       My application to the White House also included a list of over 500 IP addresses of frequent readers from NASA, the European Space Agency, Roscosmos (the Russian Space Agency) and the Kremlin. Nearly 300 IP addresses were from the Kremlin. They know that it not only snowed at the Mars Phoenix site, but that NASA has been snowing us with false information about Mars for a very long time now.

       Whoever lands on Mars first, if not part of an international expedition, will likely claim the planet along with all its mineral wealth for their nation or company. President Trump is a man who understands money, but who also has an unlimited sense of patriotism. My application number to work at the White House is P-0007502.   To all the NASA and U.S. Intelligence officers who have followed my research and that of my son, Dr. David Alexander Roffman - now doing a postdoc at Yale, bring us both aboard not only to Make America Great Again, but to Make America’s Space Program Great Again too.