FULL REPORT CONTENTS FOR MARS CORRECT - CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA

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Updated 11/7/2018

NOVEMBER 7, 2018: MARS CORRECT - CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA

 

ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 9-year study critiques 2,220 Sols (6+ terrestrial years, 3.31 Martian years, and the full Global Dust Storm of 2018) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the previously accepted small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking 1 and 2 (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar - altered to 14 mbar in 2017). For MSL there were several pressures published from August 30 to September 5, 2012 that were from 737 mbar to 747 mbar – two orders of magnitude high – only to be retracted. We challenged many pressures and NASA revised them down, however 9 years into this audit it has come to our attention that of two pressure sensors ordered by NASA for Mars Pathfinder, one of them (Tavis Dash No. 1) could in fact measure up to 1,034 mbar. Further, for the MSL according to an Abstract to the American Geophysical Union for the Fall 2012 meeting, The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) states of their MSL (and Phoenix) Vaisala transducers, “The pressure device measurement range is 0 – 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C – 55°C, but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 – 12 hPa..” So while we originally thought that of the five landers on Mars that had meteorological suites, none of them could measure Earth-like pressures, in fact, if the higher pressure sensor Pathfinder Tavis Dash 1 (0-15 PSIA/1,034 mbar) was sent rather than Tavis Dash 2 (0-0.174 PSIA/12 mbar), three landers were actually equipped to get the job done, but the public was largely kept in the dark about it. All 19 low uv values were removed when we asked about them, although they eventually restored 12 of them. REMS always-sunny opacity reports were contradicted by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter photos. Why REMS Team data was so wrong is a matter of speculation, but we clearly demonstrate that their weather data was regularly revised after they studied critiques in working versions of this report and on our website at http://davidaroffman.com. REMS even labelled all dust storm weather as sunny, although they did list the uv values as all low. This rendition of the Basic Report begins at MSL Sol 2129. The last weather report was for Sol 2136. There is a possibility that the dust storm will knock out the pressure sensor (assuming that it was really functioning before the storm).

Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes which we link to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurement failed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems included confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA Ames could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons and similar storms above Olympus Mons (over 21 km high), dust storm opacity at MER Opportunity blacking out the sun, snow that descends 1 to 2 km in only 5 or 10 minutes, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.

 

 

 

SEPTEMBER 14, 2018: BASIC REPORT for MARS CORRECT – CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR MARS CORRECT -

CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA (Updated 9/23/2018) 

ABSTRACT

1

1. INTRODUCTION

2

   1.1 Comparison of Martian and terrestrial dust devils

3

     1.1.1 Geographic Occurrences and the Greenhouse and Thermophoresis Effect

3

     1.1.2 Seasonal Occurrences and Electrical Properties

4

     1.1.3. Size and Shape

4

     1.1.4. Diurnal Formation Rate and Lifetime

4

     1.1.5 Wind Speeds

4

     1.1.6 Core Temperature Excursions

4

     1.1.7 Dust Particle Size – The Problem of Martian Dust <2 Microns and Wind Speeds

4

     1.1.8. Core Pressure Excursions

5

   1.2. NASA Ames Test of Martian Pressures and Dust Devils 

8

2. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION PROBLEMS

9

   2.1 Viking 2 and Gay-Lussac’s Law

11

   2.2 Pathfinder and Phoenix Pressure Issues

16

   2.3. Which Transducers Were Used?

19

   2.4. Issues Raised by the FMI

20

2.5. DID ANY TAVIS OR VAISALA TRANSDUCERS PEG OUT AT THEIR MAXIMUM PRESSURES?

26

    2.5.1 How extraordinary was the (temporary) 1,149 Pa pressure spike of MSL Sol 370?

27

     2.5.2. The importance of gleaning data from identification of our web site readers

27

    2.5.3 Why is it so wrong to alter data to fit an expected curve?

34

   2.6 The Dust filter on Viking

37

      2.6.1. The issue of Viking pressure reports and digitization

37

     2.6.2. The issue of daily pressure spikes at consistent time-bins.

38

2.7. MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco

43

3. CAVES ON AND SPIRAL CLOUDS ABOVE ARSIA MONS AND OLYMPUS MONS ON MARS.

46

4. THE ISSUES OF SNOW, WATER ICE, AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON MARS.

48

   4.1. Annual Pressure Fluctuations Recorded by Viking 1, Viking 2, and Phoenix - Maximum Pressure in the Northern Winter?

48

4.1.1. Ls of minimum pressure

49

4.1.2. Ls of maximum pressure

49

5. RADIO OCCULTATION

62

5.1 Shifting Standards – The Relationship of the MOLA Topography of Mars to the Mean Atmospheric Pressure.  

64

6.  SPECTROSCOPY PRESSURE READINGS BY MARS EXPRESS ORBITER.

68

7.  MARTIAN WIND PROBLEMS

69

   7.1 Anemometer/Telltale Wind Speed Issues

70

   7.2 Martian Bedforms – Too Much Movement of Sand Dunes and Ripples for 6.1 mbar

72

   7.2.1 Issues Raised by the paper on Planet-wide sand motion on Mars by Bridges et al. (2012)

72

8. DO DOWNRANGE LANDINGS MEAN THINNER OR THICKER AIR?

78

9. DUST OPACITY AND PRESSURE

83

10. EXCESSIVE DECELERATION DURING AEROBRAKING OPERATIONS

90

   10.1 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)

90

   10.2 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)

91

11. THE GLOBAL DUST STORM OF 2018

91

   11.1 Pressures Claimed for the 2018 Global Dust Storm

94

   11.2 Brief Summary of 2018 Dust Storm Data

104

   11.3 Possibility of a Biological Factor in Lifting Dust

104

   11.3.1 Martian Dust Storm Seasons

105

   11.4 Martian Dust Storm Paths and Radioactive Areas

105

12. MARS PATHFINDER PRESSURES

106

13. THE POTENTIAL PRESSURE ON MARS

109

   13.1 Did NASA ever publicly back 20 mbar on Mars?

109

   13.2 Biology, Methane, and a Possible Hint of the Real Martian Air Pressure

110

   13.3 Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Perchlorates and Running Water on Mars

115

     13.3.1 Length of daylight where RSL are found

115

     13.3.2 Latitudes, times and temperatures for evidence of running water

117

     13.3.3 The role of perchlorates in RSL

118

    13.4 Other Water on Mars – the Frozen Sea at Utopia Planitia

120

   13.5 The High End of Pressure Estimates for Mars….

123

   13.6. Pressure Drop as MSL Climbs Mt. Sharp vs. Scale Height Predictions.

128

14. RELATIVE HUMIDITY

137

15. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT CONCERNS

140

    15.1. Ground Temperature Problems

141

    15.2. Winter Ground Temperatures above freezing in MSL Year 2

149

    15.3. Why the early winter ground temperatures are so important and possible life seen on Sol 1185

149

    15.4. MSL Air and Ground Temperature Differences.

154

    15.5. MSL Diurnal Temperature Variations

157

       15.5.1. Why does the temperature fall more degrees at MSL in summer nights than winter nights?

161

   15.6. Probable Failure of the Ground Temperature Sensor or Personnel Issues?

161

      15.6.1 Failure of the Temperature Sensor.

168

      15.6.2 Personnel Issues.

168

      15.6.3 Mixed messages about the range and sensitivity of pressure sensors sent to Mars.

170

      15.6.4. A Possible Excuse for REMS Errors.

175

    15.7 Temperature, Pressure and Albedo

176

16. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND CLOUD COVER AT MSL.

180

16.1 Solar Longitude for sols at MSL with very high and low ultraviolet radiation.

182

17. CRASH OF THE EXOMARS 2016 SCHIAPARELLI LANDER

191

      17.1 ESA gets smarter – Raises ExoMars orbit due to excessive density of Mars’s atmosphere

194

18. CONCLUSIONS

196

19. RECOMMENDATIONS

203

20. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

204

AFTERWORD: What difference could this all possibly make?

205

21. REFERENCES

211

       ANNEXES AND APPENDICES TO MARS CORRECT - CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA: 

SECTION

TOPIC

PAGE

Annex Abstract

Overview of data in the Annexes

A-1

ANNEX A

VIKING 1 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES and Mars Time-Bin Clock.

A-2 to

A-59

ANNEX A Appendix 1

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.

A-3 to A-22

Appendix 2

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134-199.

A-23 to

A-34

Appendix 3

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.

A-35 to A-38

Appendix 4

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304

A-39 to    A-50

Appendix 5

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334

A-51 to    A-55

Appendix 6

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350

A-56 to    A-59

ANNEX B

VIKING 2 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES

B-1 to B-39

Appendix 1

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175

B-2 to B-5

Appendix 2

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.

B-6 to B-10

Appendix 3

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.

B-11 to     B-20

 

Appendix 4

 

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.

B-21 to     B-26

Appendix 5

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291-305.

B-27 to     B-30

Appendix 6

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361

B-31 to     B-39

ANNEX C

VIKING 2 STUCK PRESSURE GAUGE

C-1 to C-54

ANNEX D

PERCENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASURED PRESSURES ON VIKING AND GAY-LUSSAC/ AMONTON’S LAW-BASED PREDICTIONS

D-1 to D-171

Appendix 1

Viking 1 Sols 1 to 199

D-3 to D-94

Appendix 2

Viking 1 Sols 200 to 350

D-95 to    D-171

ANNEX E

Measured vs. Predicted Pressure Percent Differences for Viking-1 Time-bins 0.3 and 0.34

E-1 to E-14

ANNEX F

Percent Difference Experimental Summary

F-1 to F-18

Appendix 1

Percent Difference Flow Chart for Viking 1 Sols 1 to 116 & 200 to 350

F-5 to F-16

Appendix 2

Histogram with temperatures at successful predictions per time-bins

F-17 to     F-18

ANNEX G

Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results

G-1 to G-13

 

ANNEX H

Calibration Effort for the Mars Pathfinder Tavis Pressure Transducer and IMP Windsock Experiment

H-1 to H-43

ANNEX I

Pressures Reported by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS).

I-1 to I-28

Appendix 1

Print Screen Record of Original REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Reports

I-12 to I-28

ANNEX J

Concessions by Ashima Research and How to Correctly Calculate Daylight Hours for MSL

J- 1to J-19

ANNEX K

REMS Team and Ashima Research Weather Reports from Sol 15 to Sol 299.

K-1 to K-34

ANNEX L

How Martian Day Length Varies with Ls and Latitude

L-1 to L-10

ANNEX M

One Year of MSL Weather Reports

M-1 to M-38

 

ANNEX N

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 151 to Ls 270 (late winter to end of spring), Sols 670 to 864

N-1 to N-13

ANNEX O

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 270 to Ls 0 (summer), Sols 865 to 1,020

O-1 to O-11

ANNEX P

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 0 to Ls 90 (autumn), Sols 1019 to 1,213

P-1 to P-15

ANNEX Q

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 to 3 Winter, Ls 90 to Ls 180 (Sols 1,213 to 1,392)

Q-1 to Q-18

ANNEX R

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Spring, Ls 180 to Ls 270 (Sols 1,392 to 1,534

R-1 to R-37

ANNEX S

Source: Document: Two Martian Years of MSL High Air and Ground Temperatures.

S-1 to S41

ANNEX T

Source Document: Two Martian Years of MSL Low Air and Ground Temperatures.

T-1 to T-64

ANNEX U

Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation and Pressures at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2

U-1 to U-28

ANNEX V

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Summer, Ls 270 to Ls 0 (Sols 1,534 to 1,686.

V-1 to V-28

ANNEX W

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Fall, Ls 0 to 90 (Sols 1,687 to 1,881

W -1 to W-24

ANNEX X

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3-4 Winter, Ls 90 to 180 (Sols 1,881to 2060

X-1 to X-31

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE BASIC REPORT

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Arsia Mons dust devils

3

2

Utah dust devil pressure drop

5

3

Pressure drops at Phoenix and Pathfinder

6

4

Relative magnitude of 0.62 mbar increase in pressure for Viking 1 at its sol 332.3 and pressure drops or 79 convective vortices/dust devils at Mars pathfinder

7

5A

First photo from the surface of Mars and dust kicked up

10

5B

Rocks on the deck of the MSL Curiosity

10

6

Pressure calculator with Gay-Lussac Pressure Law and Viking 2 results.

12

7

Prediction success totals per time-bin and corresponding % of successful predictions.

13

8

Sample of Annex F – Viking 1 daily pressure predictions & measurements with cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions

14

9A-9C

Relationship of temperature changes to pressure changes on Viking 2

15

10A

Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011

17

10B

Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484

18

10C

Three different Tavis transducers

19

11A

Vaisala pressure transducer on Phoenix and MSL

20

11B

Relative size of dust filters for Mars landers

21

12A

Pressure and Temperatures Recorded by Phoenix

22

12B

Except for Sol 370 the black MSL pressure curve is suspiciously too close to the Viking 2 curve above it and the Viking 1 curve below it. 

23

12C

NASA was forced to change their pressure data to move in line with what we predicted that they would publish for the minimum pressure at the end of MSL Year 3.

24

13

Quality control Individuals test.

26

14A

MSL sensor pegged out at max pressure

28

14B

MSL pressure sols 369-371

29

14C

The REMS team alters the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data

30

14D

Ashima Research has not yet altered the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data

30

14E

REMS also alters pressures for Sols 1160 and 1161.

31

14F

REMS again revises pressures for Sols 1300 and 1301.

32

14G

REMS alters temperature data too when it is off the curve.

33

15A

MSL REMS Block Diagram

34

15B

Real Mars Sky Color

34

16A

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.

39

16B

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134 -199.

39

16C

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.

39

16D

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304

39

16E

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334

40

16F

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350

40

16G

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175

40

16H

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.

40

16I

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.

41

16J

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.

41

16K

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291- 305.

41

16L

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361

41

17A

REMS Team data confusion

44

17B

Data day length and wind report changes from Ashima Research due to our efforts

44

18A-D

Inverse relationship between MSL pressures and temperatures

45

19

Caves on Arsia Mons

47

20

Spiral clouds over Arsia Mons and Olympus Mons

47

21A

1,177Pa and 1,200 Pa maximum pressures published

50

21B

Approximate display of how MSL pressure data fits in with VL-2, VL-1 and Phoenix data. 

51

22B

REMS plays games with the minimum pressure so far for MSL Year 3 on Sol 2002.

55

22A

Ashima Research does not support exact minimum MSL pressures published by the REMS Team

52

23

Pressure curve for MSL’s first 866 sols.

59

24

Radio Occultation Points on Mars with locations of Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons indicated

66

25

MOLA map of Mars with topographic features, landing sites, and methane plumes

67

26A

Mars Express OMEGA spectroscopy-derive surface pressures

68

26B

Four years of in situ pressures at Viking 1 lander site

68

27

Phoenix telltale waving in Martian wind

71

28

Wind speeds recorded at Viking 1 for its sols 1 to 116 and 134 to 350

74

29

Wind speeds recorded at Viking 2 for its sols 1 to 399

75

30

Erasure of Spirit’s tracks during the 2007 global dust storm

76

31

Dust Storms and pressures recorded at Vikings 1 and 2.

77

32

Reconstructed density for Spirit landing

79

33

Reconstructed density for  Opportunity entry

79

34

Reconstructed density for Phoenix entry

80

35

Dust storm in  Phoenix, Arizona

81

36

Sols 852 to 858 REMS vs. Malin

82

37

Opacity changes at Opportunity from sols 1205 to 1235.

88

38

VL1 pressure and opacity

89

39

Actual Dynamic Pressure – normalized to an altitude of 121 km

90

40

2019 Global Dust Storm Sols 2082 to 2090

92

41

2018 Global Dust Storm blacks out the sun at Opportunity

93

42

Two images from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity rover depict the change in the color of light illuminating the Martian surface

94

43

The altitude from – July 26, 2016 to October 15, 2016 was somewhere between 4,400 meters in July to 4,360 meters below areoid.

95

44

Possible correlation between radioactive hot spots and dust storm origination on Mars?

106

45

Time-averaged surface pressures for 30 sols of Pathfinder

107

46

Diurnal pressure cycle for MSL Sol  10 and MPF Sols 9 and 10

110

47

History of beliefs about Martian Atmospheric Pressure

111

48

Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

111

49

Methane spikes seen by MSL at Gale Crater.

112

50A-I plus Plates 5 and 6

The Color of the Martian Sky

114

51

Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL)

116

52

Location of RSL on Mars

117

53

Projected surface and subsurface temperature to 10 cm depth at Melas Chasma

118

54

Relation between temperature, season & direction for RSL at Melas Chasma

118

55

Spectroscopy, RSL & perchlorates/Perchlorates and boiling point on Mars

120

56

Map of Utopia Planitia where a water ice sea was found on Mars

122

57

Pressure predictions based on stratus clouds 16 km over Mars Pathfinder

127

58

Gale Crater topographic map

130

59

Comparison of scale heights in The Martian Climate Revisited and on a NASA web site.

133

60

Comparison of pressure readings by Viking 1, Viking 2, Mars Phoenix, and MSL

136

61

Relative humidity is missing from REMS weather reports

137

62

Relative humidity claims for Gale crater

138

63

Relative humidity in the blast zone, arriving at Rocknest, leaving Rocknest and at Glenelg in Gale Crater.

  139

64

The REMS Team drops above freezing temperatures to below freezing

141

65

Huge uncertainty of MSL ground temperatures

142

66

MSL temperature sensor range

144

67

MSL ground temperature sensor

145

68

Mars Science Laboratory high air and ground temperatures for 3+ Martian years.

146

69

Mars Science Laboratory low air and ground temperatures for 3+ Martian years.

147

70

Unaveraged periodic temperature data from Mars Pathfinder (0.25 meters to 1 meter height)

148

71

The green spherical and cocoon-like objects seen on sols 1185 and 1189. The green spheres might be photosynthetic life.

150

72

The putative ooids found in the same area as the spheres shown on Figure 57A might be simply smaller versions of the same phenonena.

151

73

Elevations and ground temperatures encountered while MSL was at positions noted by JPL. Possible life was seen on Sol 1185, along with a warmer than expected high ground temperature. The position noted for MSL for Sol 1248 is a return to within 20 meters of where the potential life was seen before. Then it moved within about 10 meters of the site.

152

74

Some of the unusually warm ground temperatures including five above freezing seen early in MSL Year 2 Winter.

153

75

Diurnal drop in high temperatures from the ground up to 1.5 meters above ground level at MSL

154

76

Location of meteorological sensors on Booms 1 and 2 of MSL.

157

76

Graph of air temperature drops at MSL for its summer (Year 2) and winter (Year 2 to 3)

135

77

While low air temperatures for sols 1670 and 1671 were both -76° C, the ground temperature lows differed by 30° C.

161

78

Sols 1720 to 1721 – Record low of -136° C.

161

79

Results from Spectroscopy when matching RSL with perchlorates

162

80

MSL Sols 1717 to 1721 topography with altitudes below areoid with low air and ground temperatures posted by the REMS Team.

164

81

JPL identified positions and MOLA altitudes for sols 1639 to 1671.  Low air and ground temperatures were added based on REMS Team weather reports.

165

82

 JPL published the positions for MSL Sols 1635, 1636, 1639, 1642, 1643, 1645, 1646, 1648 and 1649. During these dates low ground temperatures varied between -79° and -93° C. However, the dates that they did not show had ground temperature lows that varied from -80° and -111° C with five temperatures colder than -101° C, the coldest temperature ever observed by MSL.

166

83

Alteration of REMS Team report for Sol 1605 after we questioned it.

It is quite apparent that before March, 2017 reports that vary too  much from the preceding day or previous Martian year at the same Ls do not survive long at the REMS site at  http://cab.inta-csic.es/rems/en

  170

84

Viking 1 and Viking 2 error in unit conversion

172

85

The REMS Team would not permit low temperatures warmer than -50°  C.

173

86

Print-screen (recorded on July 23, 2017) of the FMI Abstract entitled Pressure and Humidity Measurements at the MSL Landing Site Supported by Modeling of the Atmospheric Conditions.

  174

87

The Vaisla Pressure sensor and its range as depicted by Spaceflight101.com. (1150 Pa top pressure)

175

88

REMS puts out a new maximum pressure for MSL. This time it’s 1400 Pa (14 mbar).

176

89

Maximum temperature calculated according to Boltzman’s Law with TES measurements from the equator to -10° latitude (10° South latitude)

 

 

177

90

Combining day and night infrared shooting, I have obtained this map in false colors where red spots area areas that tend to warm up more quickly during the day, while green resembles areas that tend to retain more warmth overnight, everything else is shown in blue.

179

91

Ls of Mars when MSL was experiencing low µv or very high µv.

184

92

Initial low µv values reported by the REMS Team and how the reports were altered. All low µv values between Sol 608 (April 22, 2014) and Sol 1200 on December 22, 2015 were obliterated by February 22, 2016.

186

93

After the REMS Team (a) dropped all µv values and (b) read our concerns about their behavior they changed at least 12 sols back to low µv. See Figure 77B for the rest of such changes.

187

94

After the REMS Team (a) dropped all µv values and (b) read our concerns about their behavior they changed at least 12 sols back to low µv. Figure 77B shows such changes that were not documented on Figure 77A

   188

95

Not all changes away from low µv were restored. As of October 12, 2017 no such restoration has made yet for Sol 1006.

189

96

Sunny skies advertised for MSL Sols 82 to 88 were not backed by the MSSS MARCI images

191

97

ESA gets smarter – Raises ExoMars orbit due to excessive density of Mars’s atmosphere

196

98

Changes in sky color and opacity due to the dust storm at MSL between May and June 2018.

201

 

 

 

TABLE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Pressure at various elevations on Mars based on a scale height of 10.8 and a pressure at Mars Areoid of 6.1 mbar. 

8

2

Viking 1 cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions.

12

3

Pressures revised by JPL/MSL after we highlighted them

25-26

4A

Sample of how the Mars Correct team tracks weather data published by the REMS Team/JPL

37

4B

Digitization limitations and the specific pressures reported by VL-2 for its first summer on Mars

39

5

Viking 1 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies

43

6

Viking 2 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies               

44

7

Pressures @ LS 90 and minimum pressures seen by VL-1, VL-2 and MSL

54

8

Landers and expected pressures based on landing altitude

54

9

Comparison of Viking 1 and Viking 2 Pressures for Ls 270

57

10

Variations in day length at Ls 70 South

58

11

Comparison of Martian Pressures via Radio Occultation & Calculated Scale Height Calculations

62

12

Six attempts by Mariners 4, 6 and 7 to measure pressure by radio occultation.

64

13

Profile of the windiest Viking day on Mars

73

14

Extracts of the MSSS reports that mention cloudy or dusty weather at the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars, and weather in equatorial regions where Curiosity is found.  

83-87

15A

MSL Sols, Ls and Altitude in Meters Below Areoid

96

15B

REMS weather data for the 2018 Global Dust Storm

98-99

15B

Calculation for pressure at Utopia Planitia (Based on 6.1 mbar at areoid)

97

15C

Length of Sols on Mars at key solar longitudes related to dust storms

105

16

Calculation For Pressure At Utopia Planitia (Based on 6.1 mbar at areoid)

 

121

17

Pressure and altitudes for MSL Years 2 and 3 between Ls 11 and 19

129

18A

Pressure calculations for altitudes discussed above using a scale height of 10.8 km

131

18B

Pressure calculations for altitudes discussed above using a scale height of 11.1 km

132

19

Pressures over 925 Pa revised by JPL/REMS after we highlighted them or published them in earlier version of our Report

134

20

MSL temperatures altered by the REMS Team in July, 2013

140

21

Usually warm ground temperatures early in the winter of MSL year 2

150

22

Coldest air and ground temperatures for the first 29 Martian months of MSL operations on mars

159

23

MSL maximum and minimum air and ground temperatures Sols 1634 to 1684

169

24

Initial ultraviolet radiation reported through 1,256 sols at MSL. 

181

25

µv radiation reported up to Sol 1,338 after the REMS Team dropped all 19 original low µv values and then restored 12 of them.

182

26

µV for 2,007 MSL sols

183

27

Weather at MSL for Sols 2080 to 2097 during the  2018 Global Dust Storm

194

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX A

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Martian Time-Bin Clock

A-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX F

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Prediction success totals per time-bin.

F-1

2

% Differences between measured & predicted pressures as a function of time

F-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX G

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Tavis pressure sensors tested according to the Alvin Seiff papers

G-1

2

Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011

G-2

3

NASA Report No. TM X-74020 (Mitchell Report: Tavis Transducer Tests)

G-3

4

Photo of the Tavis P-4 pressure sensor

G-4

5

Transducer Selection Slide by Professor James E. Tillman

G-6

6

Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484

G-7

7

Design diagrams for Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 and P-8)

G-8

 

8

P-4 Transducers (S/N 1583 and S/N 1591) used for test of Viking pressures sensors after the launch of the two Vikings.

G-9

9

Relative sizes of dust filters used for Tavis and Vaisala transducers.

G-9

10

Table of Characteristics of Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 & P-8)

G-10

11

Tavis Transducer purchasing information

G-11

12

Temperature Malfunction During (Viking) Cruise Environment

G-13

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX I

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Pressure data for MSL Sols 10.5 to 13

I-1

2

MSL temperature data for Sols 10 to 11.5

I-1

3A

REMS Team and Ashima Research coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how Ashima was forced to alter their reports on May 11, 2013.

I-2

3B

REMS Team coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how their data was revised again on July 3, 2013.

I-3

4

REMS Weather Booms on MSL

I-5

5

Close up of MSL Weather Booms

I-5

6a to 6d

Temperature and pressure were inversely related for the MSL

I-8

7

Combined VL-1, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL Pressure Curves to MSL at Ls 10

I-9

8

MSL pressure graph Ls 158.8 to 199.9

I-10

6

REMS team and Ashima Research reporting problems

I-12

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX J

 

1

Position of Mars at the start of each of its 12 months.

J-4

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX L

 

1

Changing Martian weather data from the REMS Team.

L-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX M

 

1

Pressure changes reported for Sol 370.

M-7

2

Pressure changes for Sols 29 and 30

M-38

3

Who is ordering REMS reports temperature changes?

M-40

4

Weather sensors on MSL Curiosity

M-41

5

VL1-, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL pressure curves

M-43

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX N

 

1

MSL pressure data up through its Sol 866, Ls 270 – start of the second summer at MSL

N-2

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX O

 

1

MSL pressure data up to Ls 270, start of the second summer

O-1

2

MSL Sol 880 data changes after we highlighted problems

O-9

3

MSL Sol 1006 data changes after we highlighted problems

O-10

4

Mistakes and significant data alterations early on cast real doubt on the accuracy or honesty of MSL weather data.   

O-11

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX P

 

1

JPL makes changes to Sol 1,119 data that we predicted

P-12

2

MSL Sol 1145 data changes after we highlighted problems

P-13

3

MSL Sol 1160 and 1161 pressures that are record highs and above the 1,150 Pa limit of the Vaisala pressure sensor

P-14

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX S

 

1

Range of high air and ground temperatures through MSL Years 1 and 2.

S-1

2

REMS weather reports published for MSL Sols 1234 to 1241. Note all the ground temperature highs above 0 degrees Celsius and the incredibly low ground temperature at night – down to -100 degrees Celsius on Sol 1241.

S-2

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX U

 

1

UV at MSL in Gale Crater, Mars up through its sol 1021 and the beginning of its second autumn on Mars. The REMS Team/JPL dropped all low values by February, 2016

U-2

2A

The color for UV used on REMS reports.

 

U-20

2B

Dose rate at MSL in micrograys per day related to UV levels published on the REMS reports (see Table 2) for ~300 sols

 

U-20

3A to 3F

Relative positions of Mars and Earth when Low Ultraviolet radiations was originally reported by REMS on Mars.

U-23

4

Stratus clouds seen 1 hours 40 minutes before sunrise at Mars Pathfinder. If the atmosphere there is as thin as NASA claims it is doubtful that there would be light so far before sunrise.

U-24

5

Opportunity turned its rover eyes skyward to observe clouds drifting overhead that look like cirrus clouds on Earth.

 

U-26

6

Solar longitude (Ls) for Mars when MSL Curiosity originally measured very high UV or low UV. Again, after they read this article, they dropped all the low UV values.

U-27

7

UV, Latitude and Altitude

U-28

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX V

 

 

1

Sol 1553 to 1554 temperature and pressure anomalies and JPL fix after we highlighted the problem with Sol 1554 pressure and max temperatures.

V-23

2

REMS report for Sol 1575.

V-23

3

Figure 3 - The 35 Pa pressure drop and warm low temperatures on Sol 1605 was altered as predicted

V-24

4

Figure 4 – As predicted, odd data for Sol 1610 was altered – in this case totally deleted

V-25

5

Figure 5 - The ground temperature drop for Sol 1640 was not revised. This marked the beginning of strangely cold temperatures that went unchanged.

V-26

6

Figure 6 - Insane variation in night air to ground temperatures between MSL Sols 1643 and 1650

V-27

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX S

 

1

Usually Warm Ground Temperatures Early in the Winter of MSL Year 2

S-2

2

High air and ground temperatures for MSL Years 1 and 2.

S-4 to S-40

 

 

LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX U


 

 

1

UV values for MSL Years 1 and 2 before and after JPL dropped all low UV values

U-1

2

Solar Longitude, Pressures and Ultraviolet Radiation for MSL During its First Two Martian Years.

U-3 to

U-19

3

The relationships (if any) of solar longitude (Ls), lander altitude, lander latitude, day light hours each sol and UV recorded.

U-21

4

15 Sols with low ultraviolet radiation at Gale Crater Mars and the corresponding UV for these dates in Las Vegas, Nevada BEFORE the REMS Team and JPL dropped all low pressure data.

U-24

 

LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX X

1

Original and revised REMS data for MSL Sols 1998 to 2002.

X-29

2

Altitudes around minimum pressure for MSL Year 3

X-30

3

Sol 2043 revised UV

X-31