ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 8-year study critiques 1,774 Sols (5 terrestrial years, over 2.65 Martian years) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REM) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the previously accepted small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking 1 and 2 (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar). For MSL there were several pressures published at or slightly above the advertised upper range of the pressure sensor (sols 370, 1,160, 1,161, and 1301) as well as the period between August 30 and September 5, 2012 when pressures initially published were from 737 mbar to 747 mbar – two orders of magnitude high – only to be retracted. We challenged them all and NASA revised them down, however 8 years into this audit it has come to our attention that of two pressure sensors ordered by NASA for Mars Pathfinder, one of them (Tavis Dash No. 1) could in fact measure up to 1,034 mbar; and for the MSL according to an Abstract to the American Geophysical Union for the Fall 2012 meeting , The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) states of their MSL (and Phoenix) Vaisala transducers, “The pressure device measurement range is 0 – 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C – 55°C, but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 – 12 hPa..” So while we originally thought that of the five landers on Mars that had meteorological suites, none of them could measure Earth-like pressures, in fact, assuming that the higher pressure sensor Pathfinder Tavis Davis 1 (0-15 PSIA/1,034 mbar) was sent rather than Tavis Dash 1 (0-0.174 PSIA/12 mbar), three landers were actually equipped to get the job done, but the public was pretty much kept in the dark about it. Why they have done so is currently a matter of speculation that is beyond the basic thrust of this report, but we demonstrate that REMS weather data was regularly revised after they studied critiques in working versions of this report and on our websites at and

As for weather anomalies that support our contentions we note that Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes. We link this to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurement failures are disclosed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems are highlighted with respect to confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons, dust storm opacity, snow at Phoenix, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.

MAY 12, 2017: PowerPoint entitled Mars is wet! This is the PowerPoint version of our Basic Report (Mars Correct – Critique of All NASA Mars Weather Data).


JULY 21, 2017: Dr. Desai’s Martian Atmosphere Model Challenge and Loss of the Schiaparelli Lander.JUNE 23, 2017: Pressure Drops as MSL Climbs Mt. Sharp vs. Scale Height Predictions.

MAY 7, 2017: Unrealistic MSL ground temperature lows. Temperatures are correlated with Curiosity positions between Sols 1635 and 1659. The tree stump-like object’s position is noted.

APRIL 4, 2017: Rebuttal to the REMS Weather Report for Mars Year 33 Month 10.

FEBRUARY 19, 2017: New report sections 14.4 to 14.5 detail MSL Air and Ground Temperature Differences, MSL Diurnal Temperature Variation.

FEBRUARY 10, 2017: Comparison of diurnal temperature changes for MSL summer (Year 2) with MSL winter (Year 2 to 3). 

FEBRUARY 2, 2017: We rexamine Dr. Prasun Desai’s ask for help with Martian atmosphere models and look at the ExoMars 2016 crash.

DECEMBER 15, 2016: Frozen Sea at Utopia PLanitia, Mars

OCTOBER 20, 2016: ExoMars 2016 Attempted Landing on Mars fails.

OCTOBER 19, 2016: It looks like the joint European-Russian Space Agency ExoMars mission attained orbit but the Shiaparelli lander signal was lost during the landing sequence. Too bad.  The lander has a Dreams-P pressure sensor that apparently was supposed to measure pressures up to 50 hPa (millibars). That’s still too low according to our math, but we looked forward to seeing some useful data soon.  Information on the weather package may be found at




APRIL 7, 2016: The REMS Team again publishes bizarre pressure spikes at MSL – including one on Sol 1301 above the capacity of the pressure sensor. Will they alter their data again now that we point it out? APRIL 11, 2016: The answer to the above question is yes. What we do here looks like meteorological prediction. But it’s really behavioral and political analysis.

Also see MSL Sol 370, 1160, 1161, 1300 and 1301 Pressure Anomalies. Note the prediction that we expect the REMS Team to publish an MSL Year 2 minimum pressure – likely 726 to 730 Pa – around Ls 150 on May 10, 2016.

MARCH 9, 2016: Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2. This page underwent major revisions on 2/22/2016 after the FMI/REMS Team/JPL read the issues we raised about low UV and then tossed out all low UV data. More and more REMS data seems to be a reaction to critiques on our Report and on this site rather than an illustration of actual conditions found on Mars.

FEBRUARY 16, 2016: Warm Winter Ground Temperatures (many above freezing) at MSL and Possible Life Seen In Conjunction With Them. We look at whether slope plays a role in the warm temperatures as is the case with Recurring Slope Lineae associated with running water on Mars.
JANUARY 17, 2016: Possible spherical life spotted on Mars by MSL.


1-669  150 to 150 4 SEASONS
670 to 866 151 to 270 WINTER TO SUMMER YEAR 2
865 to 1,020  270 to 0 (360) SUMMER YEAR 2
1,019 to 1,213  0 to 90 FALL YEAR 2
1,213 to 1,392  90 to 180 WINTER YEAR 2-3
1392 to 1,534 180 to 270 SPRING YEAR 3
1,534 to 1,687  270 to 0 (360) SUMMER YEAR 3
1,688 and onward 0 to 90 FALL YEAR 3
Pressure and Ultraviolet Radiation
High Air and Ground Temperatures for MSL Note 1: Ground temperature sensor is only accurate to 10K. Note 2 dated February 5, 2016: There are unexpected ground temperatures at or above freezing for almost every sol for 3 weeks after the start of MSL Year 2’s winter.
Low Air and Ground Temperatures for MSL
MSL Day Length and Temperatures
Diurnal Air Temperature Variation at MSL New on August 1, 2016



 SECTIONS FULL NAME OF SECTION Description of the Section
Basic Report 1 Mars Correct Basic Report Abstract and Section 1 Abstract, Introduction, and Martian Dust Devils
Report Sec.2-2.1 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2 to 2.1 Overview of Instrumentation Problems
Report Sec.2.2-2.4 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2.2 to 2.4 Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and Phoenix Pressure Issues. Finnish Meteorological Institute Issues.
Report 2.5 to 2.5.3 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2.5 to 2.5.3 MSL Pressure Sensor Pegs Out at Sol 370, and the Viking Dust filter. Sols 1160 and 1161 have pressures greater than transducer capability to record. There is also a discussion about who is reading this report.
Report 2.6-2.7 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 2.6 to 2.7 Viking Pressure Reports & Digitization, Consistent Daily Pressure Spikes, MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco
Report 3-4.1.2 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 3 to 4.1.2 Caves & Spiral storms on Arsia Mons; Snow, Water Ice & Carbon Dioxide; Ls of Minimum Pressure and Maximum Pressure
Report 4.1.2 to 6 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 4.1.2 to 6 Ls of Minimum Pressure and Maximum Pressure (continued), Radio Occultation and Spectroscopy
Report 7-7.2.1 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 7 to 7.2.1 Martian Wind Problems, Anemometers/Telltales, & Sand Movements
Report 8-9 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 8 to 9 Downrange Landings; Dust Opacity and Pressure
Report 10-11 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 10 to 11 Excessive Deceleration During Aerobraking Operations and Mars Pathfinder Issues
Report 12-12.2 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 12 to 12.2 Potential Pressure on Mars, Methane, and Sky Color
Report 12.3-4 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 12.3 to 12.4 Recurring Slope Lineae, Prechlorates, and Running Water on Mars, High end of pressure on Mars
Report 13-14 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 13 to 14 Relative Humidity and Temperature Measurement Concerns, Ground temperature problems
Report 14.1 to 14.3 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 14.1 to 14.3 Ground temperature Problems, Winter Ground Temperatures above freezing in MSL Year 2; Why the early winter ground temperatures are so important and possible life seen on Sol 1185.
Report 14.4 to 14.5 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 14.4 to 14.5 MSL air and ground temperature differences, MSL diurnal temperature variation
Report 15 to 19 Mars Correct Basic Report Sections 14.1 to 18 Ultraviolet Radiation, Conclusions, Recommendations, Acknowledgements, and Afterword – What difference could all this possibly make?
Report 20 Mars Correct Basic Report References References
Annex Links Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Annexes (With Links) And Appendices
Report figure & table links Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures and Tables In The Basic Report


Short Name with Link Full Name of Article Description of the Article
Spherical life on Mars? Cocoon and spherical, photosynthetic life seen by MSL? Photos from MSL sols 1185, 1189 and 1203 might show life forms.
Radio Interview of July 20, 2015. July 20, 2015 Barry Roffman radio interview about Mars. I was interviewed again about Mars on the John Moore Show. The interviewer was Tim Spencer. The interview starts about 1 hour 11 minutes into the 2+ hour show at  
SEPTEMBER 29, 2015: RUNNING WATER FOUND AT MANY PLACES ON MARS RUNNING WATER FOUND AT MANY PLACES ON MARS Running water is associated with recurring slope lineae (RSL) and perchlorates.
Radio Interview of April 30, 2013. April 30, 2013 Barry Roffman radio interview about Mars. The link to a radio interview that I gave about Mars on April 30, 2013 is as follows:
Annex Links   Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Annexes (With Links) And Appendices 
Report figure & table links    Mars Correct: Critique Of All Nasa Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures In The Basic Report
Concession by Ashima Ashima Research Concedes to Roffman Critiques Ashima Concession For Posting Incorrect Data For The First 268 Sols And The Roffman Response To It:
MSL Martian Weather Year 1 REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports Tables 1 & 2 summarize the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) data. Flaws will be discussed in conjunction with them. Table 1 shows the history of 682 sols of weather at MSL with emphasis on major changes (likely political in nature). 
MSL Martian Weather Year 2 up to Sol 270
 REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports  REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 670 and forward to Sol 866.
MSL Year 2 Summer Weather Data MSL Year 2 Weather Record from Ls 270 (summer) to Ls 0 (360). REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 865 to Sol 1020.
MSL Year 2 Autumn Weather Data MSL Year 2 Weather Record from Ls 0 (fall) to Ls 90. REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 1,019 onward.
Old MSL Weather 1 Orignal REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Record REMS Team/JPL Give Us a Moving Target for Mars Weather Data.
Old MSL Weather 2 Original REMS Mars Science Laboratory Summer Weather Record Original REMS MSL Summer Weather Record
Soil 2% water Analysis of MSL Water in Soil Announcement There is a lot of water just under the surface of Mars – maybe too much for the pressure accepted by NASA.
JPL fudges pressure curves  How JPL fudges pressure data to keep it on expected curve. Close observation of original and revised MSL pressure data shows that JPL will not publish pressures more than 7 Pascals off the pressure expected curve.
MSL Temp. ∆ Mast to Ground MSL Temperature Change From 1.5 Meters AGL to the Ground MSL Temperature change from .5 meters above the ground to the ground.
Relative humidity Relative Humidity at Curiosity, Gale Crater, Mars Are these numbers all wet? Statements about relative humidity do not jive with the record 
Mars sky color Martian Sky Color Controversy Disinformation about Martian sky color apparently started with an order by NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher when Viking 1 touched down.
Tavis Sensor Suspicion Tavis Pressure Sensor Suspicions. ANNEX G To MARS CORRECT: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results. Tavis CADS are found here.
Vaisala Sensor: Phoenix & MSL Vaisala Sensors used on Phoenix & MSL Issues raised by the Finnish Meteorological Institute show reasons to be concerned that pressures reported are false.
Pathfinder pressures Pressures Measured by Mars Pathfinder Pathfinder Data is Best Compared to Viking 1 Data 
Wind Booms & Disinformation MSL Curiosity Wind Booms and Disinformation Pathfinder Data is Best Compared to Viking 1 Data 
Ingersoll Debate Data Debate with Professor Ingersoll of CalTech/JPL Why there is “No Sale” on a NASA Mars expert’s request that this study be terminated.
Daylight-math-fix Mars Daylight Math: Roffman vs. NASA (REMS Team & Ashima) How can we trust scientists who publish faulty data for so long even after we have pointed out obvious errors?
Curiosity Geology Curiosity and Ancient Life on Mars The red color of Mars points at least to a past with plenty of oxygen
Landing altitudes Altitudes for Mars landers with weather instruments The higher the landing site, the less the pressure.
Mars Mission History and Sites  Mars Landing Sites Attempted Martian landings and Martian weather data.
Nuc on Mars? Was there a nuclear blast on Mars? Disinformation requires a cause – something worth hiding from a public that might panic or have its values altered. Dr. Brandenberg’s discovery may point to reason for a cover up.  
Aldrin’s Phobos Monolith Aldrin’s claim of a monolith on Martian moon Phobos  Seeing is not always believing when photos are involved. Does Aldrin know more than what these pictures show?  
Ashima/MIT GCM Critique Ashima/MIT Mars General Circulation Model Critique The Mars General Circulation Model by Ashima/MIT is flawed as were the MSL Mars weather reports posted by Ashima. Research.
NASA alters temperature data How NASA altered high temperatures for MSL After NASA reported that temperatures were higher than expected at Gale Crater on Mars, they simply went back and dropped the temperatures reported.
MSL  Sol 370, 1160 and 1161 histories. MSL  Sol 370, 1160 and 1161 pressure changes by JPL and Ashima Research. After the REMS Team posting a record high average pressure of 1149 Pa (11.49 mbar) for Sol 370, and having our team question it (MSL could not measure over 1150 Pa), REMS pulled it down and put up a likey bogus false pressure of 865 Pa (8.65 mbar). Ashima Research still shows the higher pressure. REMS repeated this behavior for Sols 1160 and 1161.
Viking pressure  sensors failed Proof Viking Pressure Sensors Failed. Evidence is presented to show that clogged dust filters on Vikings 1 and 2 kept the Tavis Pressure sensors from measuring ambient air pressure on Mars.
Dust Storm Nonsense 2012 Mars Dust Storm Nonsense Analysis put out by JPL about a 2012 regional dust storm that never reached MSL or Opportunity was plainly unfounded utter nonsense.
JPL Press Conference Critique 1  Critique of JPL Press Conference of 15 November 2012 JPL made several unwarranted assertions about dust devils seen at MSL during this conference. The wind data they quoted was later withdrawn by them due to a wind instrument on Boom 1 that broke on landing.  Navigating
Navigating Mars Navigating Mars: Altitude and Longitude Issues The rules for establishing altitude and longitude have both changed. This article will attempt to clarify the issues involved. Obviously altitudes will greatly affect pressures.
Phobos Grunt Failure Phobos Grunt Failure, a Horrible Failure, But Not a Surprise. The Russians failed to reach the Martian moon Phobos (again) with a mission launched in 2011. The final Russian failure analysis is reviewed, as is earlier speculation about Phobos.
Moving sand & Mars winds Sand movement and Martian air pressure Winds measured on Mars are insufficient to move sand dunes or fill in Rover tracks if we accepted NASA’s low air pressure claims. That sand dunes do move on Mars is terrific proof that NASA is publishing false air pressure.
Moving rock Mystery of a moving rock on Mars solved? In January 2014 a rock seemed to move to get into the view of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Was it actually kicked up by an Opportunity wheel, or did something else occur?
Organic chemicals found by MSL at Gale Crater MSL finds Methane and chlorobenzene at Gale Crater. JPL press conference of December 16, 2014 and related data, mostly from the book Mars Up Close by Marc Kaufman.
 Fossil found on Mars? Does the Gillespie Lake rock outcrop point to past life on Mars?  
Beagle 2 found  Oxygen and Trees on Mars?  
155-mile high Mars Plume Mysterious plumes above the surface of Mars have scientists stumped. Clouds have been spotted up to 155 above Mars. The previous record was 60 miles up.
 Oxygen and Trees on Mars   While we believe that it’s not as strong a case as that for higher than advertised Martian air pressure, there are reasons to question the accepted levels of oxygen on Mars.
G. Levin and Labeled Release Part 1 – Gilbert Levin – the Man Who Found Life on Mars The only real opposition to Levin’s claim to have found life at Viking 1 and Viking 2 landing sites (with his labeled release experiment) was based on the failure to finding organic chemicals. But that failure was flawed, and now we know there are organic chemicals on Mars.
Gil Levin and Leveled Release – Part 2 Part 2 – Gilbert Levin – the Man Who Found Life on Mars – Historical overview.  
Brine on Mars Why we believe that JPL did a poor job of laying out the case for brine at Gale Crater.  
Ultraviolet Radiation at MSL Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2.    
Photos and comments about the strange lights seen on Ceres. A look at the possible causes of strange lights coming from a crater on Ceres. Causes considered include ice, geysers, volcanoes, salt, aliens, and diamonds formed by asteroid impact. This updated article shows the lights in September, 2015 from an altitude of 915 miles.
Factors affecting UV levels at MSL in Gale Crater, Mars
UV varies from Very high down to low. Factors considered include solar longitude (Ls), distance from the sun, latitude, altitude (and air density) opacity, and error.
High temperatures for MSL Years 1 and 2. Comparison of high air and ground temperatures at MSL.  

Scale heights and Mars pressure transducer errors


Night Shadows with Stewart Best and Larry Taylor
7/26/2017 Stewart and Larry follow up previous shows and ask me about why NASA is covering up the truth about Mars. They also ask me about what I know about time travel.
TV INTERVIEW. Time Out With Kevin Gallagher  7/12/2017 Kevin does the best TV interview of me ever – this time an hour show about the Torah Code.
Time Out With Kevin Gallagher 10/16 2016:   Kevin Gallagher does a TV interview of me on the topic of my Mars Correct research. 
Night Shadows with Stewart Best  5/8/2016 NEW RADIO SHOW: I was interviewed by Stewart Best and Larry Taylor on their NIGHT SHADOWS show. I discuss General MilleyNight Shadows with Stewart Best, Roswell, and Government disinformation about Mars. I also explain the Bible/Torah Code and time travel. 
The John Moore Radio Show 7/27/2015 I was interviewed again about Mars for about 20 minutes again today. This was followed by on hour devoted to the Torah Code. The interviewers were John Moore and Tim Spencer. The interview starts about 5 minutes 35 seconds into the 2+ hour show at After the interview I answered questions from the listeners about the Torah Code.
The John Moore Radio show 7/20/2015 I was interviewed again about Mars on the John Moore Show. The interviewer was Tim Spencer. The interview starts about 1 hour 11 minutes into the 2+ hour show at
The Curtner and Kerr Radio Show. 9/17/2014 Two hour radio interview. The first 49 minutes are about the Torah Code. Then I go into what I found about Mars. A co-guest is Tom Mack. He has a Christian-oriented codes site here.
The Curtner and Kerr Radio Show. 4/30/2013 This 90-minute radio show with Larry Taylor as a co-guest deals with Mars research conducted by my son and I. Larry maintains a web site here.
Ed Middleton’s Night Search Radio 6/24/2012 Topics I covered on the 1 hour show include the location of the Ark of the Covenant, Planet X (which I discredited), UFO Disclosure and the Alien threat.
TV show: Bible Code II – Apocalypse and Beyond First broadcast in April 2004. This show is often rebroadcast, especially around Christmas and Passover or Easter. On this 1 hour History Channel TV Show I am one of several speakers about the Torah Code. I discuss the difference between the Code and what Nostradamus wrote, three possible sources of the Code, the location of the Ark of the Covenant, and possible military uses of the Code.


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