Dust Devils in Gusev Crater

NASA / JPL-Caltech / Texas A&M

Dust Devils in Gusev Crater. This movie clip shows several dust devils moving.

The question that began a 10-year study: How can Martian dust devils shown above at Gusev Crater form if pressure is under 10 millibars (average pressure on Earth is  1,013.25 millibars)? The film clip covers 12 minutes 17 seconds of what  was seen at Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on its 543rd day on Mars (July 13, 2005). Perhaps even more extraordinary is the evidence for running water at Recurring Slope Lineae on the surface of Mars. We believe that we have accumulated the most massive and accurate portrait of Martian weather on Earth, one that has often forced NASA/JPL to alter its published Martian weather. This is heavily documented in our Basic Report and Annexes for Mars Correct: Critique of All NASA Mars Weather Data. This report was published by and at the request of the Mars Society on February 18, 2020.  The most recent version of the report is at  February 17, 2021: BASIC REPORT for MARS CORRECT – CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA. The report is updated on this site about once per month.



ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 12-year study critiques 3,025 Sols up through 8 February 2021 (8.51 terrestrial years, 4.52 Martian years) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the previously accepted small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking 1 and 2 (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar – altered to 14 mbar in 2017). For MSL there were several pressures published from August 30 to September 5, 2012 that were from 737 mbar to 747 mbar – two orders of magnitude high – only to be retracted. We challenged many pressures and NASA revised them down. However there are two pressure sensors ranges listed on a CAD for Mars Pathfinder. We long thought the CAD listed two different sensors, but based on specifications of a new Tavis sensor for InSight that is like that on PathFinder, it appears that the transducer could toggle between two pressures ranges: 0-0.174 PSIA/12 mbar (Tavis Dash 2) and 0-15 PSIA/1,034 mbar (Tavis Dash 1). Further, for the MSL according to an Abstract to the American Geophysical Union for the Fall 2012 meeting, The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) states of their MSL (and Phoenix) Vaisala transducers, “The pressure device measurement range is 0 – 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C – +55°C (-45°C is warmer than MSL night temperatures), but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 – 12 hPa.” So in fact of the first five landers with meteorological suites, there were actually equipped to measure Earth-like pressure.

Further, all original 19 low µV values were removed when we asked about them, although eventually 12 were restored. REMS always-sunny opacity reports were contradicted by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter photos. Why REMS Team data was so wrong is a matter of speculation, but we demonstrate that their weather data was regularly revised after they studied online critiques in working versions of this report. REMS even labelled all dust 2018 Global Dust Storm weather as sunny, although they did list the µV values then as all low. Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes which we link to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurements failed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems included confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA Ames could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons and similar storms above Olympus Mons (over 21 km high), dust storm opacity at MER Opportunity blacking out the sun, snow that descends 1 to 2 km in only 5 or 10 minutes, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.*1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.

ANIMATED GIF 1 BELOW: A time-lapse animation of Palikir Crater shows how the streaks extend and darken during warmer months on Mars, then gradually fade as temperatures cool.


The August, 2012 landing of MSL Curiosity on Mars was brilliant. See it here. However, our research group named Mars Correct exists to prove that the U.S. Government espouses deeply flawed versions of Martian meteorology. While the greatest errors are with air pressure, NASA has published incorrect wind information, wrong temperatures, flawed relativity humidity reports, and incorrect ultraviolet radiation levels and even wrong sunrise and sunset times. We can say this because after NASA read our proofs, it removed all wind reports, adapted our day length calculations, and removed much of the rest of their mistaken data from their web sites. However, their fundamental error remains their claim that the average pressure on Mars is 6.1 millibars, which is close to a vacuum. The weather that we see occurring, even the blue color of the Martian sky that they would not let us see for 36 years, are all impossible with such a low pressure. We believe that the absurdly low pressure that they advance is proof of a political and/or religious agenda and cover-up that requires maintenance of the status quo. However, this site doesn’t delve into the full nature of that charge, although one article explores it a bit and it is briefly discussed in the Afterword of our Basic Report. Rather, this web site’s focus is just with proving the NASA weather data wrong.

The July 17, 2018 PowerPoint summary of the Report may be found at Mars Correct? Mars is wet!


MAY 20, 2019: There is at least primitive life on Mars now. We have played a role in finding it. See the links to the Journal of Astrobiology articles by Joseph et al. (Evidence of Life on Mars?) and David A. Roffman (Meteorological Implications: Evidence of Life on Mars?).

OCTOBER 23, 2018: SEISMIC ACTIVITY ON MARS? This article looks at evidence that may suggest seismic activity at Arsia Mons, Olympus Mons and Alba Patera on Mars.

July 18, 2018: Radio show that deals with the Global Dust storm of 2018 as well as the proposed U.S. Space Force.

JUNE 1, 2018: NASA WILL SEND A HELICOPTER TO MARS. It’s likely to succeed because the pressure there is not as low as NASA asserts.

MARCH 20, 2018: Pressure Drops as MSL Climbs Mt. Sharp vs. Scale Height Predictions.

FEBRUARY 28, 2018: It looks like REMS will try to sell us a minimum pressure for Curiosity this year of about 711 to 713 Pa at LS 148 on March 24, 2018. Announced pressures are running around 19 to 20 Pa less than last year. Last night I caught our Department of Defense (DoD) reading what I previously wrote about minimum pressures. My new estimate is based on the data that I have at http://davidaroffman.com/photo5_19.html. Of course we believe that the REMS data is nonsense, with actual pressure two orders of magnitude higher.

DECEMBER 7, 2017: Update to Dr. Desai’s Martian Atmosphere Model Challenge and Loss of the Schiaparelli Lander.

September 20, 2017: High altitude plumes seen over Mars. This article looks whether such clouds are due to an asteroid impact, volcanic event, a massive spiral storms like those seen over Arsia Mons and also over Olympus Mons, and a possible a nuclear event.

SEPTEMBER 3, 2017. : My son and I were interviewed about Mars for 3 hours 42 minutes on September 3, 2017. The interview was conducted via Skype by Marco de Marco and Matteo Fagone in Amsterdam, and simultaneously translated into Italian. You can view it at this link.  

JUNE 23, 2017/UPDATED MARCH 20, 2018: Pressure Drops as MSL Climbs Mt. Sharp vs. Scale Height Predictions.

MAY 7, 2017: Unrealistic MSL ground temperature lows. Temperatures are correlated with Curiosity positions between Sols 1635 and 1659. The tree stump-like object’s position is noted.

APRIL 4, 2017: Rebuttal to the REMS Weather Report for Mars Year 33 Month 10.

FEBRUARY 19, 2017: New report sections 14.4 to 14.5 detail MSL Air and Ground Temperature Differences, MSL Diurnal Temperature Variation.

FEBRUARY 10, 2017: Comparison of diurnal temperature changes for MSL summer (Year 2) with MSL winter (Year 2 to 3). 

FEBRUARY 2, 2017: We rexamine Dr. Prasun Desai’s ask for help with Martian atmosphere models and look at the ExoMars 2016 crash.

DECEMBER 15, 2016: Frozen Sea at Utopia PLanitia, Mars

OCTOBER 20, 2016: ExoMars 2016 Attempted Landing on Mars fails.

OCTOBER 19, 2016: It looks like the joint European-Russian Space Agency ExoMars mission attained orbit but the Shiaparelli lander signal was lost during the landing sequence. Too bad.  The lander has a Dreams-P pressure sensor that apparently was supposed to measure pressures up to 50 hPa (millibars). That’s still too low according to our math, but we looked forward to seeing some useful data soon.  Information on the weather package may be found at http://ssed.gsfc.nasa.gov/IPM/PDF/1035.pdf.


APRIL 7, 2016: The REMS Team again publishes bizarre pressure spikes at MSL – including one on Sol 1301 above the capacity of the pressure sensor. Will they alter their data again now that we point it out? APRIL 11, 2016: The answer to the above question is yes. What we do here looks like meteorological prediction. But it’s really behavioral and political analysis.

Also see MSL Sol 370, 1160, 1161, 1300 and 1301 Pressure Anomalies. Note the prediction that we expect the REMS Team to publish an MSL Year 2 minimum pressure – likely 726 to 730 Pa – around Ls 150 on May 10, 2016.

MARCH 9, 2016: Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2. This page underwent major revisions on 2/22/2016 after the FMI/REMS Team/JPL read the issues we raised about low UV and then tossed out all low UV data. More and more REMS data seems to be a reaction to critiques on our Report and on this site rather than an illustration of actual conditions found on Mars.

FEBRUARY 16, 2016: Warm Winter Ground Temperatures (many above freezing) at MSL and Possible Life Seen In Conjunction With Them. We look at whether slope plays a role in the warm temperatures as is the case with Recurring Slope Lineae associated with running water on Mars.

JANUARY 17, 2016: Possible spherical life spotted on Mars by MSL.



ABSTRACT TO SECTION 1.2 Abstract, Introduction, and Martian Dust Devils
SECTION 2.2 TO 2.4

Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and Phoenix Pressure Issues, Transducers Use, & Issues Raised by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (Updated 12/23/2019)

SECTION 2.5 TO 2.52

MSL Pressure Sensor Pegs Out at Sol 370, and goes beyond that at sols 1,160 and 1,161; the Viking Dust filter (Updated on 4/10/2019.)

SECTION 2.5.3 TO 2.7

The Ethics of Data Manipulation, Viking Dust Filter, Viking Pressure Reports & Digitization, Consistent Daily Pressure Spikes, MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco (Updated 9/14/2018)

SECTION 3 TO 4.1.2

Caves & Spiral storms on Arsia Mons; Snow, Water Ice & Carbon Dioxide; Ls of Minimum Pressure. (Updated on 8/28/2017)


Radio Occultation and Spectroscopy (Updated 5/31/2019)

SECTION 7 TO 7.2.1

Martian Wind Problems, Anemometers/Telltales, & Sand Movements. (Updated 5/27/2019)


Downrange Landings; Dust Opacity and Pressure (Updated 10/2/2017)


Dust Opacy and Pressure, Contradicting Reports by the REMS Team and Malin Space Science Systems – Updated 10/2/2017


Mars Global Surveyor Excessive Aeroraking (Updated 9/14/2018)


Mars Pathfinder Issues (Updated 9/14/2017)


Potential Pressure on Mars, Methane, and Sky Color (Updated 8/9/2019)

SECTION 13.3 TO 13.5

Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Perchlorates and Running Water on Mars. This section updated on 8/15/2019.


Pressure Drop as MSL Climbs Mt. Sharp vs. Scale Height Predictions. This page updated on 9/15/2018.


Relative Humidity and Temperature Measurement Concerns. (Updated 11/3/2017)


Ground Temperatures. Updated on 2/14/2020.

SECTION 15.2 TO 15.3

Importance of Winter Ground Temperatures and Possible Life Spotted on MSL Sols 1185, 1189, 1555, 1571 and 1797. Updated on 2/14/2020.

SECTION 15.4 TO 15.6.

MSL Air and Ground Temperatures Updated 9/19/2019.

SECTION 15.6.1 TO 15.6.3

Temperature sensor failures, personnel, and questions about pressure sensor range & sensitivity. Updated 9/19/2019.

SECTION 15.6.4 TO 15.7

An Excuse for REMS errors; Temperature, Pressure & Albedo links (Posted 9/20/2018)

SECTION 16 TO 16.1

Ultraviolet Radiation at MSL. This page updated on 9/26/2019.


Schiaparelli Mars Lander Crash, Conclusions, Recommendations, and Acknowledgements. This page updated on 10/2/2019.



1-669  150 to 150 4 SEASONS
670 to 866 151 to 270 WINTER TO SUMMER YEAR 2
865 to 1,020  270 to 0 (360) SUMMER YEAR 2
1,019 to 1,213  0 to 90 FALL YEAR 2
1,213 to 1,392  90 to 180 WINTER YEAR 2-3
1,392 to 1,534 180 to 270 SPRING YEAR 3
1534 to 1687 270 to 0 (360) SUMMER YEAR 3
1688 to 1881 0 to 90 FALL YEAR 3
1881 to 2060 90 to 180 WINTER YEAR 3-4
2060 to 2204 180 to 270 SPRING YEAR 4
2203 to 2357 270 to 0 (360) SUMMER YEAR 4
2357 and onward 0 to 90 FALL YEAR 4
90 to 180 WINTER YEAR 4-5
180 to 270 SPRING YEAR 5
Pressure and Ultraviolet Radiation
High Air and Ground Temperatures for MSL Note 1: Ground temperature sensor is only accurate to 10K. Note 2 dated February 5, 2016: There are unexpected ground temperatures at or above freezing for almost every sol for 3 weeks after the start of MSL Year 2’s winter.




Short Name with Link Full Name of Article Description of the Article
Spherical life on Mars? Cocoon and spherical, photosynthetic life seen by MSL? Photos from MSL sols 1185, 1189 and 1203 might show lifeforms.
Mars Correct? Mars is Wet! PowerPoint Version of our Basic Report for MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA. Updated July 16, 2018. MARS CORRECT: MARS IS WET!. 61-slide summary of 6+ year of research indicating that air pressure in Mars is about 84 times higher than NASA asserts. This show includes the September 28, 2015 NASA announcement of running water found at many places on Mars.
Basic Report for MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA Uploaded May 12, 2017 Basic Report for MARS CORRECT: Critique of All NASA Mars Weather Data 152-page summary of 8 years of research indicating that air pressure in Mars is about 85 times higher than NASA asserts and discussing serious problems with all other Mars weather data. It includes new findings about running water on Mars.
Radio Interview of July 20, 2015. July 20, 2015 Barry Roffman radio interview about Mars. I was interviewed again about Mars on the the John Moore Show. The interviewer was Tim Spencer. The interview starts about about 1 hour 11 minutes into the 2+ hour show at http://www.thejohnmooreshow.com/.  
SEPTEMBER 29, 2015: RUNNING WATER FOUND AT MANY PLACES ON MARS RUNNING WATER FOUND AT MANY PLACES ON MARS Running water is associated with recurring slope lineae (RSL) and perchlorates.
Radio Interview of April 30, 2013. April 30, 2013 Barry Roffman radio interview about Mars. The link to a radio interview that I gave about Mars on April 30, 2013 is as follows: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/curtner-and-kerr/2013/05/01/barry-roffman-with-larry-taylor-mars-exposed
Annex Links   Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Annexes (With Links) And Appendices 
Report figure & table links    Mars Correct: Critique Of All Nasa Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures In The Basic Report
Concession by Ashima Ashima Research Concedes to Roffman Critiques Ashima Concession For Posting Incorrect Data For The First 268 Sols And The Roffman Response To It:
MSL Martian Weather Year 1 REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports Tables 1 & 2 summarize the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) data. Flaws will be discussed in conjunction with them. Table 1 shows the history of 682 sols of weather at MSL with emphasis on major changes (likely political in nature). 
 MSL Martian Weather Year 2 up to Sol 270
 REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports  REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 670 and forward to Sol 866.
MSL Year 2 Summer Weather Data MSL Year 2 Weather Record from Ls 270 (summer) to Ls 0 (360). REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 865 to Sol 1020.
MSL Year 2 Autumn Weather Data MSL Year 2 Weather Record from Ls 0 (fall) to Ls 90. REMS TEAM Mars Weather Reports from MSL Sol 1,019 onward.
Old MSL Weather 1 Orignal REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Record REMS Team/JPL Give Us a Moving Target for Mars Weather Data.
Old MSL Weather 2 Original REMS Mars Science Laboratory Summer Weather Record Original REMS MSL Summer Weather Record
Soil 2% water Analysis of MSL Water in Soil Announcement There is a lot of water just under the surface of Mars – maybe too much for the pressure accepted by NASA.
JPL fudges pressure curves  How JPL fudges pressure data to keep it on expected curve. Close observation of original and revised MSL pressure data shows that JPL will not publish pressures more than 7 Pascals off the pressure expected curve.
MSL Temp. ∆ Mast to Ground MSL Temperature Change From 1.5 Meters AGL to the Ground MSL Temperature change from .5 meters above the ground to the ground.
Relative humidity Relative Humidity at Curiosity, Gale Crater, Mars Are these numbers all wet? Statements about relative humidity do not jive with the record 
Mars sky color Martian Sky Color Controversy Disinformation about Martian sky color apparently started with an order by NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher when Viking 1 touched down.
Tavis Sensor Suspicion Tavis Pressure Sensor Suspicions. ANNEX G To MARS CORRECT: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results. Tavis CADS are found here.
Vaisala Sensor: Phoenix & MSL Vaisala Sensors used on Phoenix & MSL Issues raised by the Finnish Meteorological Institute show reasons to be concerned that pressures reported are false.
Pathfinder pressures Pressures Measured by Mars Pathfinder Pathfinder Data is Best Compared to Viking 1 Data 
Wind Booms & Disinformation MSL Curiosity Wind Booms and Disinformation Pathfinder Data is Best Compared to Viking 1 Data 
Ingersoll Debate Data Debate with Professor Ingersoll of CalTech/JPL Why there is “No Sale” on a NASA Mars expert’s request that this study be terminated.
Daylight-math-fix Mars Daylight Math: Roffman vs. NASA (REMS Team & Ashima) How can we trust scientists who publish faulty data for so long even after we have pointed out obvious errors?
Curiosity Geology Curiosity and Ancient Life on Mars The red color of Mars points at least to a past with plenty of oxygen
Landing altitudes Altitudes for Mars landers with weather instruments The higher the landing site, the less the pressure.
Mars Mission History and Sites  Mars Landing Sites Attempted Martian landings and Martian weather data.
Nuc on Mars? Was there a nuclear blast on Mars? Disinformation requires a cause – something worth hiding from a public that might panic or have its values altered. Dr. Brandenberg’s discovery may point to reason for a cover up.  
Aldrin’s Phobos Monolith Aldrin’s claim of a monolith on Martian moon Phobos  Seeing is not always believing when photos are involved. Does Aldrin know more than what these pictures show?  
Ashima/MIT GCM Critique Ashima/MIT Mars General Circulation Model Critique The Mars General Circulation Model by Ashima/MIT is flawed as were the MSL Mars weather reports posted by Ashima. Research.
NASA alters temperature data How NASA altered high temperatures for MSL After NASA reported that temperatures were higher than expected at Gale Crater on Mars, they simply went back and dropped the temperatures reported.
MSL  Sol 370, 1160 and 1161 histories. MSL  Sol 370, 1160 and 1161 pressure changes by JPL and Ashima Research. After the REMS Team posting a record high average pressure of 1149 Pa (11.49 mbar) for Sol 370, and having our team question it (MSL could not measure over 1150 Pa), REMS pulled it down and put up a likey bogus false pressure of 865 Pa (8.65 mbar). Ashima Research still shows the higher pressure. REMS repeated this behavior for Sols 1160 and 1161.
Viking pressure  sensors failed Proof Viking Pressure Sensors Failed. Evidence is presented to show that clogged dust filters on Vikings 1 and 2 kept the Tavis Pressure sensors from measuring ambient air pressure on Mars.
Dust Storm Nonsense 2012 Mars Dust Storm Nonsense Analysis put out by JPL about a 2012 regional dust storm that never reached MSL or Opportunity was plainly unfounded utter nonsense.
JPL Press Conference Critique 1  Critique of JPL Press Conference of 15 November 2012 JPL made several unwarranted assertions about dust devils seen at MSL during this conference. The wind data they quoted was later withdrawn by them due to a wind instrument on Boom 1 that broke on landing.  Navigating
Navigating Mars Navigating Mars: Altitude and Longitude Issues The rules for establishing altitude and longitude have both changed. This article will attempt to clarify the issues involved. Obviously altitudes will greatly affect pressures.
Phobos Grunt Failure Phobos Grunt Failure, a Horrible Failure, But Not a Surprise. The Russians failed to reach the Martian moon Phobos (again) with a mission launched in 2011. The final Russian failure analysis is reviewed, as is earlier speculation about Phobos.
Moving sand & Mars winds Sand movement and Martian air pressure Winds measured on Mars are insufficient to move sand dunes or fill in Rover tracks if we accepted NASA’s low air pressure claims. That sand dunes do move on Mars is terrific proof that NASA is publishing false air pressure.
Moving rock Mystery of a moving rock on Mars solved? In January 2014 a rock seemed to move to get into the view of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Was it actually kicked up by an Opportunity wheel, or did something else occur?
Organic chemicals found by MSL at Gale Crater MSL finds Methane and chlorobenzene at Gale Crater. JPL press conference of December 16, 2014 and related data, mostly from the book Mars Up Close by Marc Kaufman.
 Fossil found on Mars? Does the Gillespie Lake rock outcrop point to past life on Mars?  
Beagle 2 found  Oxygen and Trees on Mars?  
155-mile high Mars Plume Mysterious plumes above the surface of Mars have scientists stumped. Clouds have been spotted up to 155 above Mars. The previous record was 60 miles up.
 Oxygen and Trees on Mars   While we believe that it’s not as strong a case as that for higher than advertised Martian air pressure, there are reasons to question the accepted levels of oxygen on Mars.
G. Levin and Labeled Release Part 1 – Gilbert Levin – the Man Who Found Life on Mars The only real opposition to Levin’s claim to have found life at Viking 1 and Viking 2 landing sites (with his labeled release experiment) was based on the failure to finding organic chemicals. But that failure was flawed, and now we know there are organic chemicals on Mars.
Gil Levin and Leveled Release – Part 2 Part 2 – Gilbert Levin – the Man Who Found Life on Mars – Historical overview.  
Brine on Mars Why we believe that JPL did a poor job of laying out the case for brine at Gale Crater.  
Ultraviolet Radiation at MSL Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2.    
Photos and comments about the strange lights seen on Ceres. A look at the possible causes of strange lights coming from a crater on Ceres. Causes considered include ice, geysers, volcanoes, salt, aliens, and diamonds formed by asteroid impact. This updated article shows the lights in September, 2015 from an altitude of 915 miles.
Factors affecting UV levels at MSL in Gale Crater, Mars
UV varies from Very high down to low. Factors considered include solar longitude (Ls), distance from the sun, latitude, altitude (and air density) opacity, and error.
High temperatures for MSL Years 1 and 2. Comparison of high air and ground temperatures at MSL.  
Scale heights and Mars pressure transducer errors Scale heights are key to solving the mystery of Mars.


Annex Links Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Annexes (With Links) And Appendices
Report figure & table links Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures and Tables In The Basic Report


Report figure & table links Mars Correct: Critique Of All NASA Mars Weather Data, With Emphasis On Pressure: Links To Figures and Tables In The Basic Report




About Barry Roffman

I was born in Philadelphia, PA in May, 1947, graduated from Northeast High there in 1965, and from Temple University in 1969. At the University of Pennsylvania I earned a commission in the U.S. Navy in December 1968. After active duty in the Navy, I taught science (often Earth-Space Science) in Dade and Palm Beach Counties in Florida for 30 years before retiring in 2003. I also spent 10 years in the Navy Reserve and then joined the Coast Guard Reserve in 1983. In 1995 I retired from the military, but was recalled to active duty in March 2003. While on active duty, I wrote defense readiness and disaster response plans at Coast Guard District 7 in Miami, Coast Guard Pacific Area in Alameda, California, and for Districts 14 in Hawaii and 17 in Alaska. I retired again on my 60th birthday in May, 2007. I have been a guest speaker on the History Channel where I discussed my Torah Codes and Ark Code research (which is featured on my ArkCode.Com website); and at International Mars Society Conventions where (with my son, David, we have focused on Martian air pressure since 2010. MILITARY AWARDS RECEIVED: U.S Coast Guard Meritorious Service Medal, U.S. Coast Guard Commendation Medal, U.S. Coast Guard Achievement Medal, Commandant's Letter of Commendation Ribbon Bar (gold star in lieu of second), National Defense (double bronze star in lieu of third time), USCG Bicentennial Unit Commendation, Coast Guard Unit Commendation, USCG Humanitarian Service Medal, Armed Forces Reserve Medal (with M and Silver Hour Glass). As a Reservist, I proudly served aboard the following ships in the Navy: Aircraft Carriers: Lexington; Randolph; Franklin D. Roosevelt; Independence, and Kitty Hawk. I also served on amphibious communications command ship: Mount Whitney, destroyers Barton; Lowry; Blackwood (a DE) and USS Fox; frigate: Antrim, and coastal minesweeper: Thrush. In the Coast Guard I served on Buoy Tender Ironwood and WPB Aquidneck
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